Stereoscopic Media

Stereoscopic Still Images

Adams, Gavin (2015) ‘Duchamp’s Erotic Stereoscopic Exercises’. Anais do Museu Paulista: História e Cultura Material, 23:2, pp.165-185.

Amad, Paula (2010) ‘World souvenir: “Mr. K.” and the Archives de la Planete’ in Counter-archive: film, the everyday and Albert Kahn’s Archives de la Planete Columbia University Press, pp.25-63. ISBN: 9780231135009

Babbitts, Judith (1994) ‘Made in America: a stereoscopic view of the United States’ in Nye, David and Gidley, Mick, (eds.), American photographs in Europe, Amsterdam: VU University Press, pp.41-56. ISBN 9053833048

Babbitts, Judith (2004) ‘Stereographs and the construction of a visual culture in the United States’ in Rabinovitz, Lauren and Geil, Abraham (eds.) Memory bytes: history, technology and digital culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, pp.126-149 ISBN 0822332280; 0822332418 (pbk)

Bak, Meredith A. (2012) ‘Democracy and discipline: Object lessons and the stereoscope in American education, 1870–1920’ in Early Popular Visual Culture, 10:2, pp.147-167

Bantjes, Rod (2014) ‘Hybrid Projection, Machinic Exhibition and the Eighteenth-Century Critique of Vision.’ Art History 37:5, pp.912-39.

Bantjes, Rod (2014) ‘‘‘Vertical Perspective Does Not Exist’’: The Scandal of Converging Verticals and the Final Crisis of Perspectiva Artificiali’. Journal of the History of Ideas, 75:2, pp.307-338.

Bantjes, Rod (2015) ‘Reading Stereoviews: The Aesthetics of Monstrous Space’. History of Photography, 39:1, pp.33-55

Bantjes, Rob (2016) ‘Hacking stereoscopic vision: The nineteenth-century culture of critical inquiry in stereoscope use’, International Journal of Film and Media Arts, 1:2, pp.4-21.

Bantjes, Rod (2017) ‘‘Perspectives bâtardes’: Stereoscopy, Cézanne, and the Metapictorial Logic of Spatial Construction’. History of Photography, 41:3, pp.262-285.

Batchen, Geoffrey (1992) ‘Enslaved sovereign, observed spectator: on Jonathan Crary, Techniques of the observer’. Continuum: the Australian Journal of Media and Culture, 6:2, pp.80-94.

Baylis, Gail (2012) ‘Exchanging looks: Gap girls and colleens in early Irish tourist photography’, Early Popular Visual Culture, 10:4, pp.325-343.

Belisle, Brooke (2013) ‘The Total Archive: Picturing History from the Stereographic Archive to the Digital Database’, Mediascape, 11 pages, available:

Belisle, Brooke (2013) ‘Picturing networks: railroads and photographs’, AModern, 2: Network archaeology available:

Biegon, Glenn (2005) ‘Stereoscopic synergy: twin-relief sculpture and painting’ in Leonardo, 38:2, pp.93-100.

Boehlert, Krystal (2016) ‘Stereographs on your smartphone’, VRA Bulletin, 43:1

Boman, Charlotte (2014) ‘“Peculiarly marked with the character of our own time”: Photography and Family Values in Victorian Domestic Journalism’. Victorian Periodicals Review, 47:4, pp.538-558.

Borges De Araújo, Nuno (2018) ‘Lisbon and its region: Stereoscopic photography, c.1853-1890’, International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 1:2, pp.4-31.

Bowers, Brian (2001) Sir David Brewster, FRS, 1802-1875, 2nd rev. ed. London: Institution of Engineering and Technology. ISBN: 9780852961032

Brewster, David (1844) ‘On the law of visible position in single and binocular vision, and on the representation of solid figures by the union of dissimilar plane pictures on the retina.’ in Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 15, pp.349-368.

Brewster, David (1844) ‘On the knowledge of distance given by binocular vision.’ in Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 15, pp.663-674.

Brewster, David (1849) ‘Account of a new stereoscope.’ in Report of the British Association [for the Advancement of Science]. Transactions of The Sections, pp.6-7.

Brewster, David, Wheatstone, Charles and others (1852) Article VII [9 contributions on] Binocular vision and the stereoscope. North British Review, 33, pp.165-204.

Brewster, David (1856) The stereoscope: its history, theory and construction with its application to the fine and useful arts and to education. London: John Murray.

Brooks, Kevin R. (2017) ‘Depth Perception and the History of Three-Dimensional Art: Who Produced the First Stereoscopic Images?’. Iperception, 8:1,

Brunet, François (1994) ‘“Picture Maker of the Old West”: W. H. Jackson and the birth of photographic archives in the United States’ in Prospects, 19, pp.161-187.

Cain, Victoria E. M. (2016) ‘Seeing the world: Media and vision in US geography classrooms, 1890–1930’. Early Popular Visual Culture, 13:4, pp.276-292.

Cameron, John B. (2004) ‘The Early Paper Stereographs of Claude-Marie Ferrier’. The Photogram, 31:5, pp.4-11.

Cameron, John B. and Schimmelman, Janice G. (2013) The early paper stereo views of Claude-Marie Ferrier, 1852-1858. The Collodion Press. ISBN: 9780982945643

Cameron, John B and Schimmelman, Janice G (2016) The glass stereoviews of Ferrier and Soulier, 1852-1908. The Collodion Press. ISBN: 9780982945674

Campbell, Mary (2014) ‘Praying for Grace: Charles Ellis Johnson’s synesthetic skin’ in Promey, Sally M., ed., Sensational religion: sensory cultures in material practice. New Haven: Yale University Press, pp.261-274. ISBN: 9780300187359

Carbon, Claus-Christian and Hesslinger, Vera M (2013) ‘Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa entering the next dimension’, Perception, 42, pp.887-893. 

Carville, Justin (2007) ‘Mr Lawrence’s Great Photographic Bazaar’, Early Popular Visual Culture, 5:3, pp.263-283.

Cernek, Stephen (2013) ‘From picturesque to profane: a cultural history of the Hudson River’s Palmer Falls.’ Hudson River Valley Review, 29:2, pp.52-70

Christie, Ian (2018) The 19th century craze for stereoscopic photography.

Christie, Ian (2018) The 19th century craze for stereoscopic photography

Colligan, Colette (2004) ‘Stereograph’. Victorian Review: an interdisciplinary journal of Victorian Studies, 34:1, pp.75-82.

Craciun, Adriana (2014) ‘The Franklin Relics in the Arctic Archive’. Victorian Literature and Culture, 42:1, pp.1-31.

Crary, Jonathan (1992) Techniques of the observer: on vision and modernity in the nineteenth century, Cambridge MA: MIT Press ISBN: 0262031698

da Silva, Maria Cristina Miranda (2016) ‘Stereoscopy In nineteenth century Brazil: The case of Rio de Janeiro’, International Journal of Film and Media Arts, 1:2, pp.58-74.

Darrah, William Culp (1964) Stereo views: a history of stereographs in America and their collection, Gettysburg, PA:Times and News Publishing Co

Darrah, William Culp (1975) ‘ Stereographs: A Neglected Source of History of Photography.’ in Coke, Van Deren, ed., One Hundred Years of Photographic History: Essays in honour of Beaumont Newhall. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, pp.43-46. ISBN: 9780826303448

Darrah, William Culp (1977) The world of stereographs, Gettysburg, PA: William C. Darrah ISBN: 9780965051316

Davidson, Kathleen (2014) ‘Connecting the Senses: Natural History and the British Museum in the Stereoscopic Magazine’. 19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century, 19.

Davis, Daniel (2006) ‘Appreciating a Pretty Shoulder: The Risqué Images of Charles Ellis Johnson’. Utah Historical Quarterly, 74:131-146.

Davis, Melody  D. (1998) ‘An essential reprint in stereography [review of “The World of stereographs” by William C. Darrah]’ in Art Journal, 57(3), pp.94-96.

Davis, Melody (2011) ‘The new woman in American stereoviews, 1871-1905’ in Otto, E. and Rocco, V. (eds.) The new woman international: representations in photography and film from the 1870s through the 1960s,Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp.21-38

Davis, Melody (2015) Women’s views: the narrative stereograph in nineteenth-century America. Lebanaon, NH: University of New Hampshire Press. ISBN: 9781611688382/9781611688399

Daw, Naomi (2017) From the inside looking out: travelling the world from the parlour Brighton: University of Sussex Library. pp.73-87.

Di Bello, Patrizia (2013) ‘“Multiplying Statues by Machinery”: Stereoscopic Photographs of Sculptures at the 1862 International Exhibition’, History of Photography, 37:4, pp.412-420.

Di Bello, Patrizia (2016) ‘Photographs of sculpture: Greek slave’s ‘complex polyphony’,1847-1877′. 19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century, 22

Di Bello, Patrizia (2016) ‘The Greek slave and photography in Britain’, Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide: a journal of nineteenth-century visual culture, 15:2, pp.43 pages,

Di Bello, Patrizia (2018) ‘Stereoscopic photographs of The Bride by Rafaelle Monti, 1862’ in Sculptural photographs: from the Calotype to digital technologies. London: Bloomsbury Visual Arts, pp.37-56. ISBN: 9781350028241

Difford, Richard J. (2008) ‘Stereopsis and still-life’, Medical Sciences History, 24, pp.8-25.

Difford, Richard J. (2012) ‘In defence of pictorial space: stereoscopic photography and architecture in the Nineteenth century ‘ in Higgot, Andrew and Wray, Timothy, eds., Camera constructs: photography, architecture and the modern city, Farnham: Ashgate, pp.295-312. ISBN: 9781409421450

DiGiulio, Katherine (1990) ‘The representation of women in 19th and early 20th-century narrative stereographs.’ in Fellows, Fanny Knapp Allen (ed.) Ideas about images: essays on film and photography, Rochester, NY: Rochester Film and Photo Consortium, pp.2-18.

Doherty, Amy S. (1978) ‘Carleton E. Watkins, Photographer: 1829-1916’. The Courier, 15:4, pp.3-20.

Duttlinger, Carolin (2005) ‘‘Die Ruhe des Blickes’: Brod, Kafka and the Kaiserpanorama’ in Emden, Christian and Midgley, David (eds.) Technology and the German cultural imagination: papers from the conference ‘The Fragile Imagination’, Cambridge, 2002, Oxford: Peter Lang ISBN: 9783039101702

Earle, Edward E. (ed.) (1979) Points of view: the stereograph in America: a cultural history, Rochester, New York: Visual Studies Workshop Press ISBN: 9780898220063

Edwards, Elizabeth (2011) ‘A Village Lost and Found: An Annotated Tour of the 1850s Series of Stereo Photographs “Scenes from our Village” by T. R. Williams’. Photography and Culture, 4:2, pp.235-237.

Erasmus, H. J. (2012) ‘The Underwood & Underwood stereographs of the Anglo-Boer War, 1899-1902’, South African Journal of Cultural History, 26:2, pp.61-82.

Evans, Elaine Altman (2003) In the Sandals of Pharaoh: James Henry Breasted and the Stereoscope. (McClung Museum of Natural History and Culture Occasional Paper)

Evans, Elaine Altman (2007) ‘In the Sandals of Pharaoh: James Henry Breasted and the Stereoscope.’ in Fortenberry, Diane (ed.) (2007) Who Travels Sees More: Artists, Architects and Archaeologists Discover Egypt and the Near East. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp.163-178. ISBN: 9781842172735

Ferragallo, Roger (1972) ‘A manifesto directed to the new aesthetics of stereo space in the visual arts and the art of painting’, [online], available:

Ferragallo, Roger (1974) ‘On stereoscopic painting’ in Leonardo, 7:2, pp.97-104

Fleckenstein, Kirstie S. (2016) ‘Materiality’s rhetorical work: the nineteenth century parlor stereoscope and the second-naturing of vision’ in Barnett, Scot and Boyle, Casy, eds., Rhetoric, through everyday things. Tuscaloosa, Ala: University of Alabama, pp.125-138. ISBN: 9780817319199

Flores, Victor (2013) ‘Stereo visual culture: Between the documentary and entertainment’. The International Journal of the Image, 3, pp.9-19.

Flores, Victor ed. (2016) A terceira imagem: A fotografia estereoscópica em Portugal/The third image: Stereo Photography in Portugal, Lisbon: Documenta. ISBN: 9789898618740

Flores, Victor (2018) ‘The Metrics of Landscape: Stereo fieldwork by Francisco Afonso Chaves and other Portuguese Explorers’, Artnodes 21 DOI: 10.7238/a.v0i21.3162

Fowles, Jib (1994) ‘Stereography and the standardization of vision’ in The Journal of American Culture, 17:2, pp.89-93

Friedel, Megan K. and Toedtemeier, Terry (2008) ‘Picturing Progress: Carleton Watkins’s 1867 Stereoviews of the Columbia River Gorge’ in Oregon Historical Quarterly 109:3, pp.388-411

Garrison, Laurie (2007) ‘The Visual subject, c.1810–1840: trends in Romanticism and Victorianism’ in Literature Compass, 4:4, pp.1078–1091.

Goldberg, Tyler and Clemons, Angel (2010) ‘Cataloging in stereo: metadata for stereographs’, in Microform and Imaging Review, 39:3, pp.86-97.

Gonzalez, Carmen Perez (2017) ‘From the observatory to the classroom: Space images in the Keystone “600 set” and “1200 set”’. International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 1:1, pp.40-52.

Graver, Bruce (2009) ‘Wordsworth, Scott, and the stereographic picturesque’ in Literature Compass, 6(4), pp.896–926.

Grigsby, Darcy Grimaldo ( 2013) ‘Two dimensions or three? Scale, photography, and Egypt’s pyramids.’ in Behdad, Ali  and Gartlan, Luke, eds., Photography’s orientalism: new essays on colonial representation. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, pp.115-128. ISBN: 978160606510

Godbey, Emily (2012) ‘“Terrible Fascination”: Civil War stereographs of the dead’ in History of Photography, 36:3, pp.265-274.

Goldsborough, Gordon (2007) ‘Victorian virtual reality’ in Manitoba History, 54, pp.30-38

Guiness, Selina (2004) ‘Ireland through the stereoscope: reading the cultural politics of theosophy in the Irish literary revival’ in Fitzsimon Taylor, Betsey and Murphy, James H., eds., The Irish revival reappraised, Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp.19-32. ISBN: 1851827579

Gunning, Tom (2001) ‘Doubled Vision: Peering through Kentridge’s Stereoscope, Parkett, 63, pp.66-81

Gurevitch, Leon (2013) ‘The stereoscopic attraction: Three-dimensional imaging and the spectacular’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.396-405 10.1177/1354856513494175

Gurevitch, Leon and Miriam Ross (2013) ‘Stereoscopic Media: Scholarship Beyond Booms and Bust’ in Public, 47, pp.72-82

Haberstich, David E. (1994) ‘American photographs in Europe and illusions of travel’ in Nye, David and Gidley, Mick, eds., American photographs in Europe. Amsterdam: VU University Press, pp.57-75. ISBN: 9789053833049

Haberstich, David E. (1996) ‘Souvenirs of roads not taken: Virtual travel with the Underwood and Underwood system and the World Wide Web’ in Robinson, Mike, Evans, Nigel and Callaghan, Paul, eds.,Culture as the Tourist Product Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Centre for Tourism and Travel pp.131-139. ISBN: 9780907679882

Hackemann, Rebecca (2013) ‘The Fictional Referent as Signifier in 3D Photography’ in Public, 47, pp.ii-iv

Hainge, Greg (2013) ‘On Noise and Photography. Forest, Fuzz, Ruff’ in Greg Hainge, Noise Matters: Towards an Ontology of Noise, New York: Bloomsbury Academic, pp.209-239

Hallett, Michael (1986) ‘John Benjamin Dancer 1812-1887: a perspective’ in History of Photography, 10:3, pp.237-255.

Hamessley, Lydia (2007) ‘Double vision: banjos, guitars, and mandolins in late 19th-Century stereoviews’ in Fretboard Journal, 8, pp.108-114

Hamessley, Lydia (2007) ‘Within sight: three-dimensional perspectives on women and banjos in the late nineteenth century’ in 19th-Century Music, 31:2, pp.131-163.

Hamilton, George E. (1949) Oliver Wendell Holmes, his pioneer stereoscope and the later industry, New York: Newcomen Society

Hankins, Thomas L. and Silverman, Robert  J. (1995) ‘The giant eyes of science: the stereoscope and photographic depiction in the nineteenth century’ in Hankins, Thomas L. and Silvermaan, Robert  J., (eds.), Instruments and the imagination, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp.148-177 ISBN: 9780691005492

Hanson, David A. (1985) ‘Early Photolithographic Stereographs in America: William and Frederick Langenheim and A. A. Turner’, History of Photography, 9:2, pp. 131-140.

Haralambidou, Penelope (2007) ‘The stereoscopic veil’ in Architectural Research Quarterly, 11:1, pp.36-52

Haralambidou, Penelope (2012) ‘Stereoscopy and the architecture of visual space’ in Higgot, Andrew and Wray, Timothy, eds., Camera constructs: photography, architecture and the modern city, Farnham: Ashgate, pp.313-330. ISBN: 9781409421450

Heil, Douglas (2017) The art of stereography: rediscovering vintage three-dimensional images. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN: 9781476664606

Heilbrun, Francoise (2009) ‘Impressionism and photography’ in History of Photography, 33:1, pp.18-25

Hess, Scott (2008) ‘William Wordsworth and photographic subjectivity’. Nineteenth-Century Literature, 63:3, pp.283-320.

Hibbert, William (2004) Jacques Henri Lartigue: hidden depths. London: Design for Life.  ISBN: 978-0954678807

Hickman, Paul (1987) John James Reilly, 1838-1894: Photographic Views of American Scenery. [PhD], unpublished thesis (PhD), University of New Mexico.

Hoelscher, Steven (1998) ‘The photographic construction of tourist space in Victorian America’ in Geographical Review, 88:4, pp.548-570

Holmes, Oliver Wendell (1859), ‘The Stereoscope and the Stereograph‘, Atlantic Monthly, 3, pp.738-48

Holmes, Oliver Wendell (1861) ‘Sun-Painting and Sun-Sculpture; With a Stereoscopic Trip Across the Atlantic‘, Atlantic Monthly, pp.13-29

Hood, M.V.J. and Haas, Robert Bartlett (1963) ‘Eadweard Muybridge’s Yosemite Valley photographs, 1867-1872’ in California Historical Society Quarterly, 42:1, pp.5-26.

Hubbard, Melanie (2005) ‘”Turn it a little”: the influence of the Daguerreotype and the stereograph on Emily Dickinson’s use of manuscript variants’, in Mosaic: a journal for the interdisciplinary study of literature, 38:1, pp.115-132.

Huhtamo, Erkki (1995) ‘Armchair Traveller on the Ford of Jordan: The Home, the Stereoscope and the Virtual Voyager’, Mediamatic (Amsterdam), 8:2/3, pp.13-23,

Huffman, Wendell W. (2012) Waiting for the cars: Alfred A. Hart’s Stereoscopic Views of the Central Pacific Railroad, 1863-1869. Carson City, NV: Nevada State Railroad Museum. ISBN: 9780972877336

Ionnidis, Kostas and Mouzakti, Elini (2015) ‘Greece through the stereoscope: constituting spectatorship theought texts and images’. in Carrabot, Philip, Hamilakis, Yannis and Papargyriou, Eleni, eds., Camera graeca: photographs, narratives, materialities.Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, pp.159-168. ISBN: 9781472424761

Jenkins, H. F. (1957) Two points of view: the history of the parlor stereoscope, Elmira, NY: World in Color Productions.

Jensen, Kirsten M. (2013) ‘Seeing in stereo: Albert Bierstadt and the stereographic landscape’, Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide: a journal of nineteenth-century visual culture 12:2,

Johnson, Wendell G. (2008) ‘“Making Learning Easy and Enjoyable:” Anna Verona Dorris and the Visual Instruction Movement, 1918-1928’. TechTrends, 52:4, pp.51-58.

Jones, Andrew F. (2010) ‘Portable monuments: architectural photography and the “Forms” of Empire in Modern China’ in Positions, 18:3, pp.599-631.

Jones, Lawrence T. (2014) ‘Stereographs’ in Lens on the Texas frontier. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, pp.65-104 ISBN: 9781623491475

Kanemitsu, Yoko (2000) ‘Stereoscopy and Pre-Raphaelitism: the Pre-Raphaelites and Ruskin in the New Media Age’ in Convergence, 6, pp.106-120

Kantor, Jonathan (2016) ‘Stereoscopic Cards in Early 20th Century Dermatologic Education.’, JAMA Dermatology, 4

Kibbey, Mead B. (1996) The railroad photographs of Alfred A. Hart, artist; edited by Peter E. Palmquist.  Sacramento,Ca.: California State Library.  ISBN: 9780929722856.

King, Elliott H (2018) ‘“The Spectator Makes the Picture”: Optical illusions and Viewer Experience in Dalí’s and Duchamp’s Stereoscopic Works’, Avant-garde Studies :3, pp.27 pages.

Klahr, Douglas (2013) ‘The Radically Subversive Narrative of Stereoscopic Photography ‘. 1, pp.1-14, DOI:

Klahr, Douglas (2013) ‘Stereoscopic photography encounters the staircase: traversing thresholds, borders and passages’.  Archimaera 5, pp.89-97,

Klahr, Douglas (2014) ‘The Stereoscopic photo album as Nazi propaganda: Ephemerality of image in Vienna, The Pearl of the Reich.’, in Adorno, S., Cristina, G. and Rotondo, A., eds., VI congresso AISU InvisibleVisible. Percepirela città tra descrizioni e omission, Catania, Monastero dei Benedettini, Scrimm Edizioni, pp.1903-1911.

Klahr, Douglas (2016) ‘Traveling via Rome through the Stereoscope: Reality, Memory, and Virtual Travel’, Architectural Histories, 4:1

Klahr, Douglas R (2016) ‘Nazi Stereoscopic Photobooks of Vienna and Prague: Geopolitical Propaganda Collides with a Distinctive Visual Medium’, Paper cities: urban portraits in photographic books, 171-190.

Klahr, Douglas (2017) ‘Stereoscopic Architectural Photography and Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology’. ZARCH: Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Architecture and Urbanism, 9, pp.84-106.

Krauss, Rosalind (1982) ‘Photography’s discursive spaces: landscape/view’, Art Journal, 42:4, pp.311-319.

Krauss, Rosalind (1999) ‘Photography’s discursive spaces: landscape/view’ in Bolton, Richard, (ed.) Contest of meaning: critical histories of photography, Cambridge (Mass.); London: MIT, pp. 287-302. ISBN:0262022885/0262521695

Kyram, Dan (1995) ‘Early stereoscopic photography in Palestine’. History of Photography, 19:3, pp.228-230.

Layer, Harold A. (1971) ‘Exploring stereo images: a changing awareness of space in the fine arts’ in Leonardo, 4:3, pp.233-238.

Layer, Harold A. (1979) ‘Stereoscopy: Where Did It Come From? Where Will It Lead?’ in Exposure, 17:3, pp.34-48.

Layer, Harold A. (1989) ‘Holographic and stereoscopic space: new research directions’ in Leonardo, 22:3/4, pp.411-413.

Lehmann, Annette Jael (2013) ‘Life and death in peep boxes: bringing the Civil War to the American home’. in Martschukat, Jűrgen and Niedermeier, Silvan, eds., Violence and visibility in modern history,London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.159-180. ISBN: 9781137378682.

Lightfoot, Fredrick S. (1957) ‘The stereographic portraits of Lincoln’. Image, 6:2, pp.36-39.

Lindquist-Cock, Elizabeth (1970) ‘Stereoscopic photography and the Western paintings of Albert Bierstadt’ in Art Quarterly, 33:4, pp.360-378.

Lindstrom, Richard (2000) ‘”They all believe they are undiscovered Mary Pickfords”: workers photography and scientific management’. Technology and Culture, 41:4, pp.725-751.

Long, Burke O. (2001) ‘Lakeside at Chautauqua’s Holy Land.’ Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 92, pp.29-53

Long, Burke O. (2003) Imagining the Holy Land: lands, models and fantasy travels, Bloomington, IN:Indiana University Press. ISBN: 0253341361

Luther, Frederic (1992) ‘John Benjamin Dancer (1812–87): A family history.’ History of Photography, 16:2, pp.123-134.

Lyons, Maura (2012) ‘An embodied landscape: Wounded trees at Gettysburg’. American Art, 26:3, pp.44-65.

Maginnis, Tara (1987) ‘Stereographs as an educational resource in costume history’. TD&T: Theatre Design and Technology, 23:1 pp.25-29

Mahn, Churnjeet (2014) ‘The virtual tourist gaze in Greece, 1897–1905’, Annals of Tourism Research, 48, pp.193-206.

Malin, Brenton J. (2007) ‘Looking white and middle-class: stereoscopic imagery and technology in the early Twentieth-Century United States’ in Quarterly Journal of Speech,93:4, pp.403-424.

Manovich, Lev (1993) ‘The Mapping of Space: Perspective, Radar, and 3-D Computer Graphics’. Available online at:

Maréchal, G. and Bennett, Laura (2016) ‘The Animated Stereoscopic Portrait’, Art in Translation, 8:1, pp.41-46,

Martin, Karen (2006) A Short history of the Keystone View Company. Meadville, PA: Johnson Shaw Stereoscopic Museum.

Martin, Karen (2017) A Short history of the Keystone View Company. Revised ed., Meadville, PA: Johnson-Shaw Stereoscopic Museum.

Masteller, Richard N. (1981) ‘Western views in eastern parlors: the contribution of the stereograph photographer to the conquest of the West’ in Prospects, 6, pp.55-71.

Mathias, Nikita (2016) ‘Between immersion and media reflexivity: Virtual travel media in the 19th Century’, International Journal of Film and Media Arts, 1:2, pp.22-33.

May, Brian and Vidal, Elena (2009) A village lost and found: An annotated tour of the 1850s series of stereo photographs “Scenes in Our Village” by T. R. Williams, London: Frances Lincoln Ltd and The London Stereoscopic Company ISBN: 9780711230392

May, Brian, Pellerin, Denis and Fleming, Paula R. (2013) Diableries: stereoscopic adventures in Hell. London: London Stereoscopic Company. ISBN: 9780957424609

Mayer, David (2002) ‘“Quote the words to prompt the attitudes”: the Victorian performer, the photographer, and the photograph’ in Theatre Survey, 43:2, pp.223-251.

Mendelson, Andrew L. and Kitch, Carolyn (2011) ‘Creating a Photographic Record of World War I: “Real History” and Recuperative Memory in Stereography’, Journalism History, 37:3, pp.142-150.

Mendes Flores, Teresa (2018) ‘All The Names: Collections and Historical Research: The Magalhães Nobre Stereo Collection’, Photography and Culture 10.1080/17514517.2018.1487153

Miles, Melissa (2017) ‘“The Child of the World’s Old Age”: Australian Perceptions of Japan-as-Child’. Journal of Australian Studies, 41:3, pp.312-335.

Morrison-Low, Alison D (2015) Photography: a Victorian sensation. Edinburgh: National Museums Scotland. ISBN: 9781905267958

Muriuki, Godfrey and Sobania, Neal (2007) ‘The truth be told: stereoscopic photographs, interviews and oral tradition from Mount Kenya’ in Journal of Eastern African Studies,1:1, pp.1-15.

Merrin, William (2005) ‘Skylights Onto Infinity: The World In a Stereoscope’ in Simon Popple and Vanessa Toulmin (eds) Visual Delights Two: Audiences and Reception, Eastleigh: John Libbey, pp.161-174. ISBN: 0861966570

Natale, Simone (2012) ‘Photography and communication media in the Nineteenth Century’ in History of Photography, 36:4, pp.451-456.

Neumann, Dietrich (2008) ‘Instead of the Grand Tour: travel replacements in the nineteenth century’, Perspecta, 41, pp.47-53

Nisbet, James (2013) ‘Atmospheric Cameras and Ecological Light in the Landscape Photographs of Eadweard Muybridge’. Photography and Culture, 6:2, pp.131-155.

Ohrn, Karin B. (1980) ‘Points of View: The Stereograph in America. A Cultural History by Edward W. Earle [Book review]’. Winterthur Portfolio, 15:3, pp.293-295.

Ogawa, David (2007) ‘Arresting nudes in Second Empire Paris’ in History of Photography, 31:4, pp.330-347.

Paakspuu, Kalli (2007) ‘Winning or Losing the West: The Photographic Act’. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 27:1, pp.48-58.

Palmquist, Peter E. (1979) ‘The California Indian in three-dimensional photography’ in Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, 1:1, pp.89-116.

Parmeggiani, Paolo (2016) ‘Between the point of view and the point of being: the Space of the stereoscopic tours’, International Journal of Film and Media Arts, 1:2, pp.34-46.

Parmeggiani, Paolo (2016) ‘From grand tour to virtual tour: Italy through the stereoscope in 1900’. Visual Studies, 31:3, pp.231-247.

Parmeggiani, Paolo (2017) ‘3D negative space beyond stereoscopy: Immersion into the urban space of Venice’, International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 1:2, pp.44-58.

Pellerin, Denis and May, Brian (2014) The poor man’s picture gallery: Stereoscopy versus paintings in the Victorian era. London: Carlton Books/London Stereoscopic Company. ISBN: 978-0957424616

Permana, Dede, Sarwanto, Sarwanto and Rintayati, Peduk (2018) ‘Integration of Stereoscopic 3D Images in Primary School Textbooks’, International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 5:4, pp.45-55,

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