Stereoscopic Media

English Language

Jump to:     Books and Articles     Theses      Marketing

Books and Articles

Acland, Charles (201o) ‘Avatar as Technological Tentpole’ in Flow, Jan 2010.

Adams, Gavin (2015) ‘Duchamp’s Erotic Stereoscopic Exercises’. Anais do Museu Paulista: História e Cultura Material, 23:2, pp.165-185.

Adler, Dan, Marchessault, Janine and Obradovic, Sanja, (eds.) (2014) 3D cinema and beyond. Bristol:Intellect Press. ISBN: 9781783200399

Alexiou, Artemis (2019 ) ‘Women’s Views: The Narrative Stereograph in Nineteenth Century America written by Melody Davis [Book Review]’, Visual Studies,

Allison, Robert S., Laurie M. Wilcox and Ali Kazimi (2013) ‘Perceptual Artefacts, Suspension of Disbelief and Realism in Stereoscopic 3D Film’ in Public, 47, pp.149-160

Amad, Paula (2010) ‘World souvenir: “Mr. K.” and the Archives de la Planète’ in Counter-archive: film, the everyday and Albert Kahn’s Archives de la Planète. Columbia University Press, pp.25-63. ISBN: 9780231135009

Anders-Stern, Gunther (1954) ‘3D film and cyclopic effect’. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 15:2, pp.295-298.

Arthur, Paul (1996) ‘In the realm of the senses: IMAX 3-D and the myth of total cinema’. Film Comment, 32:1, pp.78-81.

Asselin, Olivier and Louis Auger Gosselin (2013) ‘This Side of Paradise: Immersion and Emersion in S3D and AR’, in Public, 47, pp.132-141

Atkinson, Sarah (2011) ‘Stereoscopic-3D Storytelling: rethinking the conventions, grammar and aesthetics of a new medium’ in Journal of Media Practice, 12:2, pp.139-156.

Atkinson, Sarah (2016) ‘Gravity: towards a stereoscopic poetics of Deep Space’ in Spöhrer, Markus, ed., Die ästhetisch-narrativen Dimensionen des 3D-Films: neuen Perspektive der Stereoskopie. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien, pp.71-85. ISBN: 9783658094218

Aubusson, Mathieu and Teulade, Vincent (2009) Eyes wide open: 3D tipping points loom  Paris: PricewaterhouseCoopers. c

Autodesk (2008) Stereoscopic filmmaking whitepaper: The business and technology of stereoscopic filmmaking. Autodesk.

Aylsworth, Wendy L., Postley, Howard J., Sandrew, Barry B., Dobrin, Bruce E. and Husak, Walt (2013) ‘Stereographic digital cinema: production and exhibition techniques in 2012’, in Proceedings of the IEEE, 101:1, pp.169-189.

Babbitts, Judith (1994) ‘Made in America: a stereoscopic view of the United States’ in Nye, David and Gidley, Mick, (eds.), American photographs in Europe, Amsterdam: VU University Press, pp.41-56. ISBN 9053833048

Babbitts, Judith (2004) ‘Stereographs and the construction of a visual culture in the United States’ in Rabinovitz, Lauren and Geil, Abraham (eds.) Memory bytes: history, technology and digital culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, pp.126-149 ISBN 0822332418, 0822332418 (pbk)

Bak, Meredith A. (2012) ‘Democracy and discipline: Object lessons and the stereoscope in American education, 1870–1920’ in Early Popular Visual Culture, 10:2, pp.147-167

Bak, Meredith A (2020) ‘Democracy and discipline: object lessons and the stereoscope in American education, 1870-1920’ in Playful visions: optical toys and the emergence of children’s media culture. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp.181-208. ISBN: 9780262538718

Banks, Martin S., Read, Jenny. C. A., Allison, Robert S. and Watt, Simon J. (2012) ‘Stereoscopy and the human visual system’. SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal, 121:4, pp.24-43.

Bantjes, Rod (2014) ‘Hybrid Projection, Machinic Exhibition and the Eighteenth-Century Critique of Vision.’ Art History 37:5, pp.912-39.

Bantjes, Rod (2014) ‘‘‘Vertical Perspective Does Not Exist’’: The Scandal of Converging Verticals and the Final Crisis of Perspectiva Artificiali’. Journal of the History of Ideas, 75:2, pp.307-338.

Bantjes, Rod (2015) ‘Reading stereoviews: The aesthetics of monstrous space’, History of Photography, 39:1, pp.33-55,

Bantjes, Rob (2016) ‘Hacking stereoscopic vision: The nineteenth-century culture of critical inquiry in stereoscope use’, International Journal of Film and Media Arts, 1:2, pp.4-21

Bantjes, Rod. 2017. “‘Perspectives Bâtardes’ Stereoscopy, Cézanne, and the Metapictoral Logic of Spatial Construction.” History of Photography 41(3):262-85.

Barberie, Peter (2008) ‘Charles Marville’s Seriality’. Record of the Art Museum, Princeton University, 67, pp.30-45.

Batchen, Geoffrey (1992) ‘Enslaved sovereign, observed spectator: on Jonathan Crary, Techniques of the observer‘. Continuum: the Australian Journal of Media and Culture, 6:2, pp.80-94.

Baylis, Gail (2012) ‘Exchanging looks: Gap girls and colleens in early Irish tourist photography’, Early Popular Visual Culture, 10:4, pp.325-343.

Bazin, André (2014) The 3D Revolution Did Not Take Place in Andrew, Dudley, (ed.) Andre Bazin’s New Media.  Oakland, Ca: University of California Press. pp.258-264

Bazin, André (2014) ‘Cinema in 3D and Color: Amazing!’ in Andrew, Dudley, (ed.) Andre Bazin’s New Media. Oakland, Ca: University of California Press, pp.232-234.

Bazin, André (2014) The House of Wax: Scare Me … in Depth! in Andrew, Dudley, (ed.) Andre Bazin’s New Media.Oakland, Ca: University of California Press. pp.251-253

Bazin, André (2014) ‘A New Stage in the Process: Math Equations for 3D’ in Andrew, Dudley, (ed.) Andre Bazin’s New Media. Oakland, Ca: University of California Press, pp.235-242.

Bazin, André (2014) The Real Crime on La Rue Morgue: They Assassinated a Dimension! in Andrew, Dudley, (ed.) Andre Bazin’s New Media. Oakland, Ca:University of California Press. pp.254-257,

Bazin, André (2014) The Return of Metroscopix in Andrew, Dudley, (ed.), Andre Bazin’s New Media. Oakland, Ca: University of California Press. pp.248-250.

Bazin, André (2014) ‘Will a War in Three Dimensions Take Place?’ in Andrew, Dudley, (ed.), Andre Bazin’s New Media. Oakland, Ca: University of California Press, pp.243-247.

Becker, Howard Saul (1979) ‘Stereographs: local, national and international art worlds’ in Earle, Edward W.(ed.) Points of view: the stereograph in America: a cultural history. Rochester, NY: Visual Studies Workshop Press in collaboration with the Gallery Association of New York State, pp.89-96. ISBN: 9780898220063

Belisle, Brooke (2013) ‘The Dimensional Image: Overlaps in Stereoscopic, Cinematic, and Digital Depth’, Film Criticism, 37/38:3/1, pp.117-137.

Belisle, Brooke (2013) ‘The Total Archive: Picturing History from the Stereographic Archive to the Digital Database’, Mediascape, 11 pages, available:

Belisle, Brooke (2013) ‘Picturing networks: railroads and photographs’, AModern, 2: Network archaeology available:

Belisle, Brooke (2014) ‘Depth readings: Ken Jacobs’s digital, stereographic films’. Cinema Journal, 53:2, pp.1-26.

Belknap, Geoffrey (2020) ‘The print after photography: Talbot and the invention of the “Photographic” print’, Nineteenth-Century Contexts, 42:2, pp.221-242

Belton, John (2012) ‘Digital 3D Cinema: Digital Cinema’s Missing Novelty Phase.’ in Film History: An International Journal 24.2, pp. 187-195.

Blair, Peter (2015) ‘Stereo views: Victorian 3D photography of the Alps’, Alpine Journal, pp.225-233

Benna, Shannon. (2018). “Systems and Practices to Produce Stereoscopic Space on Screen.” In Image – Action – Space: Situating the Screen in Visual Practice, edited by Luisa Feiersinger, Kathrin Friedrich, and Moritz Queisner, 133–46. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter.

Bennet, Bruce (2013) ‘The normativity of 3D:  cinematic journeys, “imperial visuality” and unchained cameras‘ in Jump Cut, 55, np.

Benoit, Ilicia, and Eric Kurland (2018) “The History of Stereoscopic Video Games for the Consumer Electronic Market.” Society for Imaging Science and Technology, January.

Benson-Allott, Caetlin (2013) ‘Old Tropes in New Dimensions: Stereoscopy and Franchise Spectatorship’, Film Criticism, 37/38:3/1, pp.12-29.

Benson-Allott, Caetlin (2016) ‘The CHORA Line: RealD Incorporated’ in Post-Cinema: Theorizing 21st-Century Film, ed. by Shane Denison and Julia Leyda (Falmer: REFRAME Books, 2016) ISBN:  978-0-9931996-2-2

Biegon, Glenn (2005) ‘Stereoscopic synergy: twin-relief sculpture and painting’ in Leonardo, 38:2, pp.93-100.

Bjørner, Thomas, Magnusson, Andreas and Nielsen, Robin Pascal (2016) ‘How to Describe and Measure Obstacles of Narrative Immersion in a Film?’. Nordicom Review, 37:1, pp.1-17.

Blakely, Shantel (2017) ‘Solid Vision, or Mr Gropius Builds his Dream House’. AA Files, 75, pp.86-97.

Block, Alexis (2009) ‘Put on your glasses: 3D in two generations’ in Animatrix: a journal of the UCLA Animation Workshop, 17, pp.15-24

Bluestone, George (1956) ‘In defense of 3-D’. The Sewanee Review, 64:4, pp.683-689.

Blum, Ron (2008) George Rose: Australia’s master stereographer. Oaklands Park, S.A.: Ron Blum. ISBN: 9780958957236

Blundell, Barry G. (2011) About 3D Volumetric Displays, Walker & Wood Limited. ISBN: 9780473193768

Blundell, Barry G. (2011) 3D Displays and Spatial Interaction, Walker & Wood Limited. ISBN: 9780473177010.

Boehlert, Krystal (2016) ‘Stereographs on your smartphone’, VRA Bulletin, 43:1

Boman, Charlotte (2014) ‘“Peculiarly marked with the character of our own time”: Photography and Family Values in Victorian Domestic Journalism’. Victorian Periodicals Review, 47:4, pp.538-558.

Bombeke, Klaas, Van Looy, Jan, Szmalec, Arnaud and Duyck, Wouter (2013) ‘Leaving the third dimension: no measurable evidence for cognitive aftereffects of stereoscopic 3D movies’.  Journal of the Society for Information Display, 21:4, pp.159-166.

Bordwell, David (2012) Dial M for Murder: Hitchcock frets not at his narrow room, Observations on Film Art [online], 7th September

Bordwell, David (2014) ‘Adieu au Langage: 2 + 2 x 3D’, Observations on Film Art, 7 September 2014,

Borges De Araújo, Nuno (2018) ‘Lisbon and its region: Stereoscopic photography, c.1853-1890’, International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 1:2, pp.4-31.

Böser, Ursula, Nic Craith, Máiréad and Devasundaram, Ashvin Immanuel (2017) ‘The representation of ‘building events’ in Wim Wenders’ Cathedrals of Culture’, Studies in Documentary Film, 11:1, pp.1-15,

Bowers, Brian (2001) Sir David Brewster, FRS, 1802-1875, 2nd rev. ed. London: Institution of Engineering and Technology. ISBN: 9780852961032

Bowles, Kate (2011) ‘‘Society with spectacles’: cultural memory, business risk and the revival of 3D’, Media International Australia, 139, pp.103-112.

Brewster, David (1844) ‘On the law of visible position in single and binocular vision, and on the representation of solid figures by the union of dissimilar plane pictures on the retina.’ in Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 15, pp.349-368.

Brewster, David (1844) ‘On the knowledge of distance given by binocular vision.’ in Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 15, pp.663-674.

Brewster, David (1849) ‘Account of a new stereoscope.’ in Report of the British Association [for the Advancement of Science]. Transactions of The Sections, pp.6-7.

Brewster, David (1852) ‘Binocular vision and the stereoscope’. North British Review, 33, pp.165-204.

Brewster, David, Wheatstone, Charles and others (1852) Article VII [9 contributions on] Binocular vision and the stereoscope. North British Review, 33, pp.165-204.

Brewster, David (1856) The stereoscope: its history, theory and construction with its application to the fine and useful arts and education.  London: John Murray.

Brooks, Kevin R. (2017) ‘Depth Perception and the History of Three-Dimensional Art: Who Produced the First Stereoscopic Images?’. Iperception, 8:1,

Brown, Simon (2013) ‘From Novelty to Normal: 3DTV as Special Effect’, Critical Studies in Television: An International Journal of Television Studies, 8:3, pp.33-46,

Brown, William (2012) ‘Avatar: Stereoscopic Cinema, Gaseous Perception and Darkness’ in Animation: an Interdisciplinary Journal, pp.259-271.

Brunet, François (1994) ‘“Picture Maker of the Old West”: W. H. Jackson and the birth of photographic archives in the United States’ in Prospects, 19, pp.161-187.

Brunet, François (2014) ‘Iron Muse: Photographing the Transcontinental Railroad [Book Review]’, History of Photography, 38:4, pp.437-441

Brust, James S. (2000) ‘Photojournalism, 1877: John H. Fouch, Fort Keogh’s First Post Photographer’. Montana: the Magazine of Western History, 50:4, pp.32-39

Burnett, Ron (2013) ‘Transitions, Images and Stereoscopic 3D Cinema’ in Public, 47, pp.200-213

Cain, Victoria E. M. (2016) ‘Seeing the world: Media and vision in US geography classrooms, 1890–1930’. Early Popular Visual Culture, 13:4, pp.276-292.

Campbell, Mary (2014) ‘Praying for Grace: Charles Ellis Johnson’s synesthetic skin’ in Promey, Sally M., (ed.) Sensational religion: sensory cultures in material practice. New Haven: Yale University Press, pp.261-274. ISBN: 9780300187359

Campbell, Mary (2016) ‘Stereoscopic saints’ in Charles Ellis Johnson and the erotic Mormon image. Chicago: University of Chicago, pp.145-165. ISBN: 9780226373690

Cameron, John B. (2004) ‘The Early Paper Stereographs of Claude-Marie Ferrier’. The Photogram, 31:5, pp.4-11.

Cameron, John B. and Schimmelman, Janice G. (2013) The early paper stereo views of Claude-Marie Ferrier, 1852-1858. The Collodion Press. ISBN: 9780982945643

Cameron, John B. and Schimmelman, Janice G. (2016) The glass stereoviews of Ferrier and Soulier, 1852-1908. The Collodion Press. ISBN: 9780982945674

Candusso, Damian (2016) ‘Digital 3D and the contemporary soundtrack: competing cinema spaces’, The New Soundtrack, 6:1, pp.63-76

Capozolla, Christopher (2014) Photography and power in the colonial Philippines 1: The U.S. conquest and occupation (1898-1902) [online], MIT Visualising Cultures

Carbon, Claus-Christian and Hesslinger, Vera M (2013) ‘Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa entering the next dimension’, Perception, 42, pp.887-893.

Carville, Justin (2007) ‘Mr Lawrence’s Great Photographic Bazaar’, Early Popular Visual Culture, 5:3, pp.263-283.

Casetti, Francesco and Antonio Somaini (2013) ‘The conflict between high definition and low definition in contemporary cinema’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.415-422

Cernek, Stephen (2013) ‘From picturesque to profane: a cultural history of the Hudson River’s Palmer Falls.’ Hudson River Valley Review, 29:2, pp.52-70

Chapman, Owen and Alison Reiko Loader (2013) ‘Of Motors, Martians and Jazz Age Cuties: The Stereoscopic Inventions of Laurens Hammond’ in Public, 47, pp.110-121

Charlton, John (2001) ‘Views and Reports of the Dakota Sandstone Formation, Mushroom Rock, 1867-2001’. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 104:1/2, pp.44-58.

Childs, Elizabeth C. (1996) ‘Time’s Profile: John Wesley Powell, Art, and Geology at the Grand Canyon’. American Art, 10:1, pp.6-35

Choe, Steve (2011) ‘Embodying cinematic stereopsis: 3D and James Cameron’s Avatar’, Cinemascope: independent film journal, 7(15). [13 pages]

Christie, Ian (2011) ‘Clash of the Wonderlands: 3D Cinema’ in Sight and Sound, Nov 2011. Available online at:

Christie, Ian (2014) ‘Will the 3D Revolution Happen? A Brief Perspective on the Long History of Stereoscopy (with special thanks to Eisenstein and Bazin)’ in Annie van den Oever (ed) Technē/Technology:Researching Cinema and Media Technologies – Their Development, Use, and Impact, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp.115-135 ISBN 978908964 5715

Christie, Ian (2018) The 19th century craze for stereoscopic photography

Christie, Ian (2018) The 19th century craze for stereoscopic photography

Clement, Jennifer and Long, Christian B. (2012) ‘Hugo, redemption and the cinema of attractions, or, The adaptation of Hugo Cabret’. Senses of Cinema, 63.

Clover, Joshua (2010) ‘The Struggle for Space’ in Film Quarterly, 63:3, pp.6-7.

Colligan, Colette (2008) ‘Stereograph’. Victorian Review: an interdisciplinary journal of Victorian Studies, 34:1, pp.75-82.

Cook, Pam (2013) Within and without: The Great Gatsby’s 3D experience, Fashion into Film [online],

Coons, Jayda (2019) ‘“Spectral realities”: Little Dorrit, stereoscopy, and non-mimetic realism’, Nineteenth-Century Contexts, 42:1, pp.17-31

Craciun, Adriana (2014) ‘The Franklin Relics in the Arctic Archive’. Victorian Literature and Culture, 42:1, pp.1-31.

Crary, Jonathan (1992) Techniques of the observer: on vision and modernity in the nineteenth century, Cambridge MA: MIT Press ISBN: 0262031698

Criado, Enrique (2008) ‘Original and Creative Stereoscopic Film Making’, in Woods, Andrew J., Holliman, Nicolas S. and Merritt, John O., eds., Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XIX, 68030 article 68030U

Colligan, Colette  (2004) ‘Stereograph’. Victorian Review: an interdisciplinary journal of Victorian Studies, 34:1, pp.75-82.

Cuenca, Celia (2018) ‘The “animated polystereoscope” of Francisco Dalmau introducing stereo photography in Barcelona through optical shows (1853-1863)’. International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 2:2, pp.54-59

Darrah, William Culp (1964) Stereo views: a history of stereographs in America and their collection, Gettysburg, PA:Times and News Publishing Co

Darrah, William Culp (1975) ‘ Stereographs: A Neglected Source of History of Photography.’ in Coke, Van Deren, ed., One Hundred Years of Photographic History: Essays in honour of Beaumont Newhall. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, pp.43-46. ISBN: 9780826303448

Darrah, William Culp (1977) The world of stereographs, Gettysburg, PA: William C. Darrah ISBN: 9780965051316

da Silva, Maria Cristina Miranda (2016) ‘Stereoscopy In nineteenth century Brazil: The case of Rio de Janeiro’, International Journal of Film and Media Arts, 1:2, pp.58-74

Davidson, Kathleen (2014) ‘Connecting the Senses: Natural History and the British Museum in the Stereoscopic Magazine‘. 19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century, 19.

Davis, Daniel (2006) ‘Appreciating a Pretty Shoulder: The Risqué Images of Charles Ellis Johnson’. Utah Historical Quarterly, 74:131-146.

Davis, Melody  D. (1998) ‘An essential reprint in stereography [review of “The World of stereographs” by William C. Darrah]’ in Art Journal, 57(3), pp.94-96.

Davis, Melody (2011) ‘The new woman in American stereoviews, 1871-1905’ in Otto, E. and Rocco, V. (eds.) The new woman international: representations in photography and film from the 1870s through the 1960s,Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp.21-38

Davis, Melody (2015) Women’s views: the narrative stereograph in nineteenth-century America. Lebanaon, NH: University of New Hampshire Press. ISBN: 9781611688382/9781611688399

Davis, Melody (2019) Sentiment and Irony: The Stereoscopic Treasures of F. G. Weller

Daw, Naomi (2017) ‘From the inside looking out: travelling the world from the parlour.’ In: Barrios Aquino, Marianela, Campillo-Funollet, Eduard, Daw, Naomi, Jha, Ketan, Logan Miller, Myles, Neale, Alexa and Ottway, Tom (eds.) Beyond the boundaries of home: interdisciplinary approaches. University of Sussex Library, Brighton, UK, pp. 73-87. ISBN 9780995786226.

DeJohn, Matthew (n.d.) How to critique 3D

DeSouza, Clyde (2012) Think in 3D, CreateSpace ISBN 1470150778

Devernay, Frédéric and Beardsley, Paul. (2010) ‘Stereoscopic Cinema.’ In Ronfard, Remi and Taubin, Gabriel (eds.) Image and Geometry Processing for 3-D Cinematography, (Geometry and Computing, 5) Springer: Berlin,  Heidelberg, pp.11-51 ISBN: 9783642123924.

Dexter, Lorraine (1960) ‘A Vanished America in stereo’. American Heritage, 12, pp.113-128.

Di Bello, Patrizia (2013) ‘“Multiplying Statues by Machinery”: Stereoscopic Photographs of Sculptures at the 1862 International Exhibition’, History of Photography, 37:4, pp.412-420.

Di Bello, Patrizia (2016) ‘Photographs of sculpture: Greek slave‘s ‘complex polyphony’,1847-1877′. 19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century, 22.

Di Bello, Patrizia (2016) ‘The Greek slave and photography in Britain’, Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide: a journal of nineteenth-century visual culture, 15:2, pp.43 pages,

Di Bello, Patrizia (2018) ‘Stereoscopic photographs of The Bride by Rafaelle Monti, 1862’ in Sculptural photographs: from the Calotype to digital technologies. London: Bloomsbury Visual Arts, pp.37-56. ISBN: 9781350028241

Difford, Richard J. (2008) ‘Stereopsis and still-life’, Medical Sciences History, 24, pp.8-25.

Difford, Richard J. (2012) ‘In defence of pictorial space: stereoscopic photography and architecture in the Nineteenth century ‘ in Higgot, Andrew and Wray, Timothy, (eds.), Camera Constructs: Photography, Architecture and the Modern City, Farnham: Ashgate, 295-312. ISBN: 9781409421450

DiGiulio, Katherine (1990) ‘The representation of women in 19th and early 20th-century narrative stereographs.’ in Fellows, Fanny Knapp Allen (ed.) Ideas about images: essays on film and photography, Rochester, NY: Rochester Film and Photo Consortium, pp.2-18.

Doherty, Amy S. (1978) ‘Carleton E. Watkins, Photographer: 1829-1916’. The Courier, 15:4, pp.3-20.

Drößler, Stefan (2011) ‘ A Short History of 3D Films’. NFC Newsletter (The National Museum of Modern Art/The National Film Center, Tokyo):3 and 4, pp.11-16 (each issue).

Duany, Jorge (2001) ‘Portraying the Other: Puerto Rican Images in Two American Photographic Collections’. Discourse, 23:1, pp.119-153

Duerfahrd, Lance (2013) ‘For Your Glasses Only: The Stewardesses and Sex in Three Dimensions’ in Public, 47, pp.161-173

Duffy, Michael S. (2009) ‘Stereoscopic Cinema and the Origins of 3-D Film, 1838-1952 by Ray Zone [Review]’. Moving Image, 9:2, pp.178-181.

Durie, Alastair J. (1997) ‘Tourism and photography in Victorian Scotland: the contribution of George Washington Wilson’ in By Royal Appointment: Aberdeen’s Pioneer Photographer: George Washington Wilson, 1823-1893. Aberdeen: AUL Publishing, pp.26-32. ISBN: 1874078084

Durie, Alastair J. (2015) ‘Tourism and commercial photography in Victorian Scotland: the rise and fall of G.W. Wilson & Co., 1853-1908’. Northern Scotland, 12 (First Series):1, pp.89-104.

Duttlinger, Carolin (2005) ‘‘Die Ruhe des Blickes’: Brod, Kafka and the Kaiserpanorama’ in Emden, Christian and Midgley, David (eds.) Technology and the German cultural imagination: papers from the conference ‘The Fragile Imagination’, Cambridge, 2002, Oxford: Peter Lang ISBN: 9783039101702

Earle, Edward E. (ed.) (1979) Points of view: the stereograph in America: a cultural history, Rochester, New York: Visual Studies Workshop Press ISBN: 9780898220063

Earle, Edward W. (1979) ‘Interpretive chronology: stereo, American history and popular culture, 1850-1915’ in Earle, Edward W.,(ed.)Points of view: the stereograph in America: a cultural history. Rochester, NY: Visual Studies Workshop Press in collaboration with the Gallery Association of New York State, pp.23-87. ISBN: 9780898220063

Earle, Edward W. (1979) ‘The Stereograph in America: pictorial antecedents and cultural perspectives’ in Earle, Edward W.,(ed.)Points of view: the stereograph in America: a cultural history. Rochester, NY: Visual Studies Workshop Press in collaboration with the Gallery Association of New York State, pp.9-23. ISBN: 9780898220063

Earle, Edward W. (1987) On the stump: Theodore Roosevelt in stereographs. (CMP Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 1) California Museum of Photography.

Edwards, Elizabeth (2011) ‘A Village Lost and Found: An Annotated Tour of the 1850s Series of Stereo Photographs “Scenes from our Village” by T. R. Williams’. [Book review] Photography and Culture, 4:2, pp.235-237.

Eisenstein, Sergei M. (1949) ‘On stereoscopic cinema’ in Penguin Film Review, No.8, January, pp.35-45.

Eisenstein, Sergei (2013) ‘On Stereoscopic Cinema (1947)’ in Public, 47, pp.20-59

Elcott, Noam M. (2016) ‘The Phantasmagoric Dispositif: An Assembly of Bodies and Images in real Time and Space’, Grey Room, 62

Ellenbogen, Josh (2010) ‘The Eye of the Sun and the Eye of God’, Visual Resources, 26:2, pp.113-130

Elsaesser, Thomas (2010) ‘The dimension of depth and objects rushing towards us.  Or: The Tail that wags the dog: a discourse on digital 3-D cinema’. eDIT Filmmaker’s Magazine, 1 available:

Elsaesser, Thomas (2011) ‘James Cameron’s Avatar: Access for all’ in New Review of Film and Television Studies, 9:3, pp. 247-264.

Elsaesser, Thomas (2012) ‘The “Return” of 3-D: On Some of the Logics and Genealogies of the Image in the Twenty-First Century’ in Critical Inquiry, 39:2, pp.217-246

Elsaesser, Thomas (2013) ‘Critical Response II: Response to Miriam Ross’, Critical Inquiry, 39:4, pp.878-883.

Engber, Daniel (2015) ‘The misunderstanding of 3-D’. The New Yorker, 2nd June

Engle, Rob (2008) ‘Beowulf 3D: a case study’. Proceedings of the SPIE 6803.

Engle, Rob and Lipton, Lenny (2014) ‘Stereoscopic 3D’ in Okun, Jeffery A. and Zwerman, Susan, eds., The Visual Effects Society handbook of visual effects, 2nd ed.  Abingdon: Focal Press, pp.447-541. ISBN: 97802408125182

Enyedi, Delia (2016) ‘3D Attractions: Recycling the Monomyth in Post-Cinema.’ Ekphrasis. Images, Cinema, Theory, Media, 16:2: pp.73–83.

Erasmus, H. J. (2012) ‘The Underwood & Underwood stereographs of the Anglo-Boer War, 1899-1902’, South African Journal of Cultural History, 26:2, pp.61-82.

Evans, Elaine Altman (2003) In the Sandals of Pharaoh: James Henry Breasted and the Stereoscope. (McClung Museum of Natural History and Culture Occasional Paper)

Evans, Elaine Altman (2007) ‘In the Sandals of Pharaoh: James Henry Breasted and the Stereoscope.’ in Fortenberry, Diane (ed.) (2007) Who Travels Sees More: Artists, Architects and Archaeologists Discover Egypt and the Near East. Oxford: Oxbow Books, pp.163-178. ISBN: 9781842172735

Feiersinger, Luisa ‘Travelling through the Stereoscope’ in Boskamp, Ulrike, Buchholz, Amrei, Kranen, Annette and Michalsky, Tanja (eds.) Verkoppelte Räume: Die Kombination von Karte und Bildfolge als mediales Dispositiv Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e.V., pp. ISBN: 9783777435343

Feiersinger, Luisa (2016) ‘Producing Illusions in Oz the Great and Powerful: How the stereoscopic movie narrates its medium’s decent and thereby realizes its aesthetic potential’, in Flores, Victor, ed., Stereo and Immersive Media Proceedings 2015, Lisbon, 105-126.

Feiersinger, Luisa. 2018. “Spatial Narration. Film Scenography Using Stereoscopic Technology.” In Image – Action – Space: Situating the Screen in Visual Practice, edited by Luisa Feiersinger, Kathrin Friedrich, and Moritz Queisner, 69–78. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter.

Ferragallo, Roger (1972) ‘A manifesto directed to the new aesthetics of stereo space in the visual arts and the art of painting’

Ferragallo, Roger (1974) ‘On stereoscopic painting’ in Leonardo, 7:2, pp.97-104

Fisher, Kevin (2014) ‘The ecstatic Gestalt in Werner Herzog’s Cave of Forgotten Dreams‘. Refractory: a Journal of Entertainment Media, 24

Fitter, Bruce (2013) ‘The Relationship of Pixel Parallax to Audience Emotional Response’, in 2013 International Conference on 3D Imaging, Liege, IEEE

Fleckenstein, Kirstie S. (2016) ‘Materiality’s rhetorical work: the nineteenth century parlor stereoscope and the second-naturing of vision’ in Barnett, Scot and Boyle, Casy, eds., Rhetoric, through everyday things. Tuscaloosa, Ala: University of Alabama, pp.125-138. ISBN: 9780817319199

Flores, Teresa Mendes (2015) ‘Stereoscopy, film and the time image. An improbable encounter: Paz dos Reis and Chris Marker’s photographic films.’ in Medeiros, Margarida, Flores, Teresa Mendes and Leal, Joana Cunha, eds., Photography and cinema: Fifty years of Chris Marker’s La Jetée. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp.123-170. ISBN: 9781443872010.

Flores, Victor (2013) ‘Stereo visual culture: Between the documentary and entertainment’. The International Journal of the Image, 3:4, pp.9-19.

Flores, Victor ed. (2016) A terceira imagem: A fotografia estereoscópica em Portugal/The third image: Stereo Photography in Portugal, Lisbon: Documenta. ISBN: 9789898618740

Flores, Victor (2016) ‘The Animation of the Photographic: Stereoscopy and Cinema. The Experiments of Aurélio Da Paz Dos Reis’ in Early Popular Visual Culture, 14:1, pp.87–106
Flores, Victor (2018) ‘The Metrics of Landscape: Stereo fieldwork by Francisco Afonso Chaves and other Portuguese Explorers’, Artnodes :21

Flores, Victor (2020) ‘Wet collodion and a pair of lenses Carlos Relvas’s Stereoscopic Photography: the digital reunion of negatives and prints’, History of Photography, (preprint)

Flueckiger, Barbara (2012) ‘Aesthetics of Stereoscopic Cinema’ in  Projections, 6:1, pp. 101-122

Fowles, Jib (1994) ‘Stereography and the standardization of vision’ in The Journal of American Culture, 17:2, pp.89-93

Fraser, Sarah E. (2010) ‘The Face of China: Photography’s Role in Shaping Image, 1860—1920’. Getty Research Journal, 2, pp.39-52.

Freeland, Cynthia (2012) ‘On being stereoblind in an era of 3D movies’.  Essays in Philosophy, 13:2, pp.550-576

Friedel, Megan K. and Toedtemeier, Terry (2008) ‘Picturing Progress: Carleton Watkins’s 1867 Stereoviews of the Columbia River Gorge’ in Oregon Historical Quarterly 109:3, pp.388-411

Furmanek, Bob and Kintz , Greg (n.d.) ‘An in-depth look at Creature from the black lagoon‘. [online], available:

Furmanek, Bob and Kintz , Greg (n.d.) ‘An in-depth look at Dial M for Murder‘. [online], available:

Furmanek, Bob and Kintz , Greg (n.d.) ‘An in-depth look at House of Wax‘. [online], available:

Furmanek, Bob and Theakston, Jack (n.d.) ‘The 3-D release of Hondo‘. [online], available:

Gadassik, Alla (2013) ‘Anticipation of Contact: Pina 3D and Stereoscopic Cinematography’ in Public, 47, pp.174-185

Gardner, Brian (2009) ‘Perception and the art of 3D storytelling’,
Creative Cow, pp.8-15,

Garrison, Laurie (2007) ‘The Visual subject, c.1810–1840: trends in Romanticism and Victorianism’ in Literature Compass, 4:4, pp.1078–1091.

Godbey, Emily (2012) ‘“Terrible Fascination”: Civil War stereographs of the dead’ in History of Photography, 36:3, pp.265-274.

Goldberg, Tyler and Clemons, Angel (2010) ‘Cataloging in stereo: metadata for stereographs’, in Microform and Imaging Review, 39:3, pp.86-97.

Goldsborough, Gordon (2007) ‘Victorian virtual reality’ in Manitoba History, 54, pp.30-38

Gonzalez, Carmen Perez (2017) ‘From the observatory to the classroom: Space images in the Keystone “600 set” and “1200 set”’. International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 1:1, pp.40-52.

Good, Katie Day (2019) ‘Sight-Seeing in School: Visual Technology, Virtual Experience, and World Citizenship in American Education, 1900–1930’. Technology and Culture, 60:1, pp.98-131.

Good, Katie Day (2020) ‘Sightseeing in school: promotions of virtual experience and world citizenship from the stereoscope to radio’ in Bring the world to the child: technologies of global citizenship in American education. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp.29-70. ISBN: 9780262538022

Gosser, Mark H. (1977) Selected Attempts at Stereoscopic Moving Pictures and their Relationships to Cinema, New York: Arno ISBN 0405098901

Graver, Bruce (2009) ‘Wordsworth, Scott, and the stereographic picturesque’ in Literature Compass, 6(4), pp.896–926.

Green, Harvey (1979) ‘Pasteboard masks: the stereograph in American culture 1865-1910’ in Earle, Edward W.(ed.) Points of view: the stereograph in America: a cultural history. Rochester, NY: Visual Studies Workshop Press in collaboration with the Gallery Association of New York State, pp.109-115. ISBN: 9780898220063

Grenbeaux, Pauline (1978) ‘Before Yosemite Art Gallery: Watkins’ Early Career’, California History, 57:3, pp.220-241,

Griffiths, Alison (2013) ‘Sensual Vision : 3-D, Medieval Art, and the Cinematic Imaginary’, Film Criticism, 37/38:3/1,pp. 60-86.

Grigsby, Darcy Grimaldo ( 2013) ‘Two dimensions or three? Scale, photography, and Egypt’s pyramids.’ in Behdad, Ali  and Gartlan, Luke, eds., Photography’s orientalism: new essays on colonial representation. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, pp.115-128. ISBN: 978160606510

Grosscup, Jeffrey P (1975) ‘Stereoscopic Eye on the Frontier West’. The Magazine of Western History, 25:2, pp.36-50.

Guiness, Selina (2004) ‘Ireland through the stereoscope: reading the cultural politics of theosophy in the Irish literary revival’ in Fitzsimon Taylor, Betsey and Murphy, James H., eds., The Irish revival reappraised, Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp.19-32. ISBN 1851827579

Gunning, Tom (2001) ‘Doubled Vision: Peering through Kentridge’s Stereoscope, Parkett, 63, pp.66-81

Gurevitch, Leon (2012) ‘The Birth of a Stereoscopic Nation: Hollywood, Digital Empire and the Cybernetic Attraction’ in Animation: an interdisciplinary journal, 7: 3, pp.239-258.

Gurevitch, Leon (2013) ‘The stereoscopic attraction: Three-dimensional imaging and the spectacular’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.396-405 10.1177/1354856513494175

Gurevitch, Leon and Miriam Ross (2013) ‘Stereoscopic Media: Scholarship Beyond Booms and Bust’ in Public, 47, pp.72-82

Haberstich, David E. (1994) ‘American photographs in Europe and illusions of travel’ in Nye, David and Gidley, Mick, (eds.) American photographs in Europe. Amsterdam: VU University Press, pp.57-75. ISBN: 9789053833049

Haberstich, David E. (1996) ‘Souvenirs of roads not taken: Virtual travel with the Underwood and Underwood system and the World Wide Web’ in Robinson, Mike, Evans, Nigel and Callaghan, Paul, eds.,Culture as the Tourist Product. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Centre for Tourism and Travel pp.131-139. ISBN: 9780907679882

Hackemann, Rebecca (2013) ‘The Fictional Referent as Signifier in 3D Photography’ in Public, 47, pp.ii-iv

Haifley, Julie Link (1980) ‘Capital Images: The Photography of Titian Ramsay Peale, 1855-1885’. Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D.C., pp.229-244.

Hainge, Greg (2013) ‘On Noise and Photography. Forest, Fuzz, Ruff’ in Greg Hainge, Noise Matters: Towards an Ontology of Noise, New York: Bloomsbury Academic, pp.209-239

Hall, Sheldon (2004) ‘Dial M for Murder’ in Film History, 16:3, pp.243-255

Hallett, Michael (1986) ‘John Benjamin Dancer 1812-1887: a perspective’ in History of Photography, 10:3, pp.237-255.

Hamessley, Lydia (2007) ‘Double vision: banjos, guitars, and mandolins in late 19th-Century stereoviews’ in Fretboard Journal, 8, pp.108-114

Hamessley, Lydia (2007) ‘Within sight: three-dimensional perspectives on women and banjos in the late nineteenth century’ in 19th-Century Music, 31:2, pp.131-163.

Hamilton, George E. (1949) Oliver Wendell Holmes, his pioneer stereoscope and the later industry, New York: Newcomen Society

Hankins, Thomas L. and Silverman, Robert  J. (1995) ‘The giant eyes of science: the stereoscope and photographic depiction in the nineteenth century’ in Hankins, Thomas L. and Silvermaan, Robert  J., (eds.), Instruments and the imagination, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp.148-177 ISBN: 9780691005492

Hanson, David A. (1985) ‘Early Photolithographic Stereographs in America: William and Frederick Langenheim and A. A. Turner’, History of Photography, 9:2, pp. 131-140.

Haralambidou, Penelope (2007) ‘The stereoscopic veil’ in Architectural Research Quarterly, 11:1, pp.36-52

Haralambidou, Penelope (2012) ‘Stereoscopy and the architecture of visual space’ in Higgot, Andrew and Wray, Timothy, (eds.), Camera constructs: photography, architecture and the modern city, Farnham: Ashgate, pp.313-330. ISBN: 9781409421450

Harden, Fred (1983) ‘Stereoscopic cinema’, Cinema Papers, 43, pp.134-139.

Hardijzer, Carol (2018) Anglo-Boer War: Stereo photographs produced by Underwood & Underwood, The Heritage Portal [online], 16th November

Hawkins, Richard C. (1953) ‘Perspective on “3-D”‘ in The Quarterly of Film, Radio and Television,7:4, pp.325-334.

Hayes, R. M. (1989) 3-D Movies: A History and Filmography of Stereoscopic Cinema, London: St James Press ISBN 0786405783

Hazen, Margaret Hindle and Hazen, Robert M. (1992) ‘Perpetuating the flame’ in Keepers of the Flame: The Role of Fire in American Culture, 1775-1925 Princeton University Press, pp. ISBN: 9780691606637

Heckscher, Morrison H. (2008) ‘Creating Central Park’. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series, 65:3, pp.1-3,5-74.

Heffernan, Kevin (2004) Ghouls, gimmicks and gold: horror films and the American movie business, 1953-1968. Durham, NC:Duke University Press. ISBN: 9780822332152/9780822332022

Heilbrun, Francoise (2009) ‘Impressionism and photography’ in History of Photography, 33:1, pp.18-25

Heil, Douglas (2017) The art of stereography: rediscovering vintage three-dimensional images. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN: 9781476664606

Hernández Latas, José Antonio (2018) ‘The photographic cabinet of Mariano Júdez y Ortiz (1856-1874) and the versatility of the stereoscopic camera’. International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 2:2, pp.28-39

Hess, Robert F., To, Long, Zhou, Jiawei, Wang, Guangyu and Cooperstock, Jeremy R. (2015) ‘Stereo Vision: The Haves and Have-Nots’. Iperception, 6:3, pp.1-5

Hess, Scott (2008) ‘William Wordsworth and photographic subjectivity’. Nineteenth-Century Literature, 63:3, pp.283-320.

Hibbert, William (2004) Jacques Henri Lartigue: hidden depths. London: Design for Life.  ISBN: 978-0954678807

Higgins, S. (2012) ‘3D in Depth: Coraline, Hugo, and a Sustainable Aesthetic’ in  Film History: An International Journal24:2, 196-209.

Hirst, Robert H. and Rowles, Brandt (1984) ‘William E. James’s stereoscopic views of the Quaker City excursion’. Mark Twain Journal, 22:1, pp.15-33

Hoelscher, Steven (1998) ‘The photographic construction of tourist space in Victorian America’ in Geographical Review, 88:4, pp.548-570

Holmberg, Jan (2003) ‘Ideals of immersion in early cinema’. Cinémas : revue d’études cinématographiques / Cinémas: Journal of Film Studies, 14:1, pp.129-147.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell (1859), ‘The Stereoscope and the Stereograph‘, Atlantic Monthly, 3, pp.738-48

Holmes, Oliver Wendell (1861) ‘Sun-Painting and Sun-Sculpture; With a Stereoscopic Trip Across the Atlantic‘, Atlantic Monthly, pp.13-29

Holzapfel, Richard Neitzel (1992) ‘Stereographs and Stereotypes: A 1904 View of Mormonism’. Journal of Mormon History, 18:2, pp.155-176

Hood, M.V.J. and Haas, Robert Bartlett (1963) ‘Eadweard Muybridge’s Yosemite Valley photographs, 1867-1872’ in California Historical Society Quarterly, 42:1, pp.5-26.

Hubbard, Melanie (2005) ‘”Turn it a little”: the influence of the Daguerreotype and the stereograph on Emily Dickinson’s use of manuscript variants’, in Mosaic: a journal for the interdisciplinary study of literature, 38:1, pp.115-132.

Huffman, Wendell W. (2012) Waiting for the cars: Alfred A. Hart’s Stereoscopic Views of the Central Pacific Railroad, 1863-1869. Carson City, NV: Nevada State Railroad Museum. ISBN: 9780972877336

Huhtamo, Erkki (1995) ‘Armchair Traveller on the Ford of Jordan: The Home, the Stereoscope and the Virtual Voyager’, Mediamatic (Amsterdam), 8:2/3, pp.13-23,

Huhtamo, Erkki (2003 ) ‘Media Art in the Third Dimension: Stereoscopic Imaging and Contemporary Art’ in Shaw, Jeffrey  and Weibel, Peter (eds.) Future Cinema: the Cinematic Imaginary after film. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, pp.466-473. ISBN: 9780262692861

Huhtamo, Erkki (2006) ‘The Pleasures of the Peephole: An Archaeological Exploration of Peep Media’ in Kluitenberg, Eric, (ed.) The Book of Imaginary Media: Excavating the Dream of the Ultimate Communication Medium. Amsterdam / Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, pp.74-155. ISBN: 9789056625399

Huhtamo, Erkki (2013) ‘(Un)walking at the Fair: About Mobile Visualities at the Paris Universal Exposition of 1900’. Journal of Visual Culture, 12:1, pp.61-88.

Huhtamo, Erkki (2013) ‘ Illusion and Its Reverse: About Artistic Explorations of Stereoscopic 3D’ in Kracke, Bernd and Ries, Marc, ed., Expanded Narration. Das Neue Erzählen. B3 Biennale Des Bewegten Bildes. Frankfurt am Main: Biennale des Bewegten Bildes/Transcript Verlag, pp.129-141. ISBN: 9783837626520

Ionnidis, Kostas and Mouzakti, Elini (2015) ‘Greece through the stereoscope: constituting spectatorship theought texts and images’. in Carrabot, Philip, Hamilakis, Yannis and Papargyriou, Eleni, eds., Camera graeca: photographs, narratives, materialities. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, pp.159-168. ISBN: 9781472424761

Jackman, Anna Hamilton (2015) ‘3D cinema: immersive media technology’. Geojournal,

Jayakumar, Tulsi (2015) ‘Sholay 3D: Recreating the Magic?’. South Asian Journal of Management, 22:4, pp.164-189.

Jeffrey, Ian (1999) An American journey: the photography of William England. Munich: Prestel. ISBN: 9783791321585

Jenkins, H. F. (1957) Two points of view: the history of the parlor stereoscope, Elmira, NY: World in Color Productions.

Jensen, Kirsten M. (2013) ‘Seeing in stereo: Albert Bierstadt and the stereographic landscape’, Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide: a journal of nineteenth-century visual culture 12:2,

Ji, Qiaho and Lee, Young Sun (2014) ‘Genre matters: a comparative study on the entertainment effects of 3D in cinematic contexts’. 3D Research, 5:15, pp.1-13

Ji, Qiaho, Tanca, Jessica and Janicke, Sophie (2013) ‘Does 3D increase the enjoyment experience? A comparative experiment on the psychological effects of 3D’. 3D Research, 4:4, pp.1-9

Jockenhövel, Jesko (2011) ‘What is it if it’s not real? It’s genre: early color film and digital 3D’, Cinemascope: independent film journal, 7(15) [14 pages]

Jockenhövel, Jesko (2016) ‘A three-dimensional checkerboard: the long take in 3D films’ in Spöhrer, Markus, ed., Die ästhetisch-narrativen Dimensionen des 3D-Films: Neue Perspektiven zur StereoskopieWiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien, pp.55-69. ISBN: 9783658094218.

Johnson, Christopher (2014) ‘Science in three dimensions: Werner Herzog’s Cave of Forgotten Dreams‘. The Modern Language Review, 109:4, pp.915-930

Johnson, Colin (2014) ‘Science in three dimensions: Werner Herzog’s Cave of Forgotten Dreams‘. The Modern Language Review, 109:4, pp.915-930.

Johnson, Wendell G. (2008) ‘“Making Learning Easy and Enjoyable:” Anna Verona Dorris and the Visual Instruction Movement, 1918-1928’. TechTrends, 52:4, pp.51-58.

Johnston, Keith M. (2008) ‘”Three Times as Thrilling!”: The Lost History of 3-D Trailer Production, 1953-54’, Journal of Popular Film and Television, 36:3, pp.150 – 160. Also available at

Johnston, Keith M. (2011) ‘Now is the time (to put on your glasses): 3-D film exhibition in Britain, 1951-55’, Film History, 23, pp.93-103 Also available at

Johnston, Keith M. (2012) ‘A technician’s dream? The critical reception of 3-D films in Britain.’ in Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television,32:2, pp.245-265. Also available at

Johnston, Keith M. (2013) ‘’Pop-out footballers’, pop concerts and popular films: The past, present and future of three-dimensional television’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.438-445 Also available at

Johnston, Keith M. (2015) ‘3D UK? 3D history and the absent British pioneers’. Open Library of Humanities [online], 1:1, pp.1-25

Johnston, Keith M. (2016) ‘An unlimited field for experiment: Britain’s stereoscopic landscapes’ in Newland, Peter (ed.) British rural landscapes on film. Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp. 71-85 ISBN: 9780719091575

Johnston, Sean F. (2014) ‘The cultural landscape of three-dimensional imaging.’ in Richardson, Martin,(ed.)Techniques and Principles in Three-Dimensional Imaging: An Introductory Approach. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, pp.212-232. ISBN: 9781466649323

Jolly, Stephen, Armstrong, Mike and Salmon, Richard (2009) The challenges of three-dimensional television. London: British Broadcasting Corporation.

Jones, Andrew F. (2010) ‘Portable monuments: architectural photography and the “Forms” of Empire in Modern China’ in Positions, 18:3, pp.599-631.

Jones, Nick (2014) ”There never really is a stereoscopic image’: a closer look at 3D media’ in New Review of Film and Television Studies, online edition, pp.1-19

Jones, Nick (2015) “Variation within Stability: Digital 3D and Film Style” in Cinema Journal, 55, pp.52–73

Jones, Nick (2016), ‘Expanding the Esper: Virtualised Spaces of Surveillance in Sf Film’ in Science Fiction Film & Television, 9:1, pp.1–23

Jones, Nick (2018) ‘The expansive and proximate scales of immersive media’. International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 2:2, pp.36-49

Jones, Nick (2019) Spaces Mapped and Monstrous: Digital 3D Cinema and Visual Culture. Columbia University Press. ISBN: 9780231194235

Jones, Nick (2020) There’s More to 3D Than Meets the Eye, Columbia University Press Blog

Jones, Lawrence T. (2014) ‘Stereographs’ in Lens on the Texas frontier. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, pp.65-104 ISBN: 9781623491475

Kanemitsu, Yoko (2000) ‘Stereoscopy and Pre-Raphaelitism: the Pre-Raphaelites and Ruskin in the New Media Age’ in Convergence, 6, pp.106-120

Kantor, Jonathan (2016) ‘Stereoscopic Cards in Early 20th Century Dermatologic Education.’, JAMA Dermatology, 4

Karajeh, Huda, Maqableh, Mahmoud and Masa’deh, Ra’ed (2014) ‘A review on stereoscopic 3D: Home entertainment for the twenty-first century’. 3D Research, 5:4, pp.26-34.

Kehr, Dave (2010) ‘3-D or not 3-D: from Bwana Devil to Avatar: how far has the technology come and how much further must it go?’ in Film Comment, 46:1, pp.60-67

Kelsey, Robin E. (2003) ‘Viewing the Archive: Timothy O’Sullivan’s Photographs for the Wheeler Survey, 1871-74’, The Art Bulletin, 85:4, pp.702-723

Kenney, Chris J. (1981) Perspective and the past: the Keystone-Mast Collection.  CMP Bulletin V.1(2)

Kerbel, Michael (1980) ‘3-D or not 3-D’ in Film Comment, 16:6, pp.11-20

Kermode, Mark (2011) ‘The inevitable decline of 3-D’ in The Good, the Bad and the Multiplex: what’s wrong with modern movies? London: Random House, pp.121-166.  ISBN: 9781847946034

Khoo, Olivia (2014) ‘Bait 3D and the Singapore – Australia co-production agreement: from content to creativity through stereoscopic technology’. Transnational Cinemas, 5:1, pp.1-13

Kibbey, Mead B. (1996) The railroad photographs of Alfred A. Hart, artist; edited by Peter E. Palmquist.  Sacramento,Ca.: California State Library.  ISBN: 9780929722856.

Kim, Jihoon (2013) ‘Introduction: Three dimensionality as a heuristic device’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.391-395

King, Elliott H (2018) ‘“The Spectator Makes the Picture”: Optical illusions and Viewer Experience in Dalí’s and Duchamp’s Stereoscopic Works’, Avant-garde Studies 3, pp.27 pages.

Kiss, Miklos (2016) ‘3D imaging technology’s narrative appropriation in cinema’ in Fossati, Giovanna and Oever, Annie van den, eds., Exposing the film apparatus: the film archive as a research laboratory. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp.312-321. ISBN: 9789089647184.

Kitsopanidou, Kira (2015) ‘Marketing the “Avatar revolution, or how to sell digital technology to exhibitors’ in Mingant, Nolwenn, Tirtaine, Cecilia and Augros, Joel, eds., Film marketing into the twenty-first century. London: Palgrave/BFI, pp.163-173. ISBN: 9781844578382

Klahr, Douglas (2013) ‘The Radically Subversive Narrative of Stereoscopic Photography ‘. 1, pp.1-14

Klahr, Douglas (2013) ‘Stereoscopic photography encounters the staircase: traversing thresholds, borders and passages’.  Archimaera 5, pp.89-97

Klahr, Douglas (2014) ‘The Stereoscopic photo album as Nazi propaganda: Ephemerality of image in Vienna, The Pearl of the Reich.’, in Adorno, S., Cristina, G. and Rotondo, A., eds., VI congresso AISU InvisibleVisible. Percepirela città tra descrizioni e omission, Catania, Monastero dei Benedettini, Scrimm Edizioni, pp.1903-1911.

Klahr, Douglas (2016) ‘Traveling via Rome through the Stereoscope: Reality, Memory, and Virtual Travel’, Architectural Histories, 4:1

Klahr, Douglas R (2016) ‘Nazi Stereoscopic Photobooks of Vienna and Prague: Geopolitical Propaganda Collides with a Distinctive Visual Medium’, Paper cities: urban portraits in photographic books,pp.171-190.

Klahr, Douglas (2017) ‘Stereoscopic Architectural Photography and Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology’. ZARCH: Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Architecture and Urbanism, 9, pp.84-106.

Klinger, Barbara (2012) ‘Cave of Forgotten Dream: Mediation on 3D’ in Film Quarterly, 65:3, pp.38-43

Klinger, Barbara (2013) ‘Beyond Cheap Thrills: 3D Cinema Today, the Parallax Debates and the “Pop-Out” in Public, 47, pp.186-199

Klinger, Barbara (2013) ‘Three-dimensional cinema: The new normal’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.423-431

Knapp, Ann-Kristin and Hennig-Thurau, Thorsten (2015) ‘Does 3D Make Sense for Hollywood? The Economic Implications of Adding a Third Dimension to Hedonic Media Products’. Journal of Media Economics, 28:2, pp.100-118

Knight, Julia and Alexis Weedon (2013) ‘Social media and debates in 3D cinema’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.389-90

Koepnick, Lutz (2013) Herzog’s Cave: On Cinema’s Unclaimed Pasts and Forgotten Futures, The Germanic Review: Literature, Culture, Theory, 88:3, pp. 271-285

Koszarski, Richard (2000) ‘A Lion in Your Lap – A Lover in Your Arms: Arch Oboler and “Bwana Devil”’ in Film History 12:1, pp.17-28.

Krauss, Rosalind (1982) ‘Photography’s discursive spaces: landscape/view’, Art Journal, 42:4, pp.311-319.

Kroon, Richard (2012) 3D A-to-Z: An encyclopedia dictionary, London:McFarland ISBN 0786468246

Kuroki, Yoshihiko (2012) ‘Improvement of 3D visual image quality by using high frame rate’. Journal of the Society for Information Display, 20:10, pp.566-574

Kyram, Dan (1995) ‘Early stereoscopic photography in Palestine’. History of Photography, 19:3, pp.228-230.

Layer, Harold A. (1971) ‘Exploring stereo images: a changing awareness of space in the fine arts’ in Leonardo, 4:3, pp.233-238.

Layer, Harold A. (1979) ‘Stereoscopy: Where Did It Come From? Where Will It Lead?’ in Exposure, 17:3, pp.34-48.

Layer, Harold A. (1989) ‘Holographic and stereoscopic space: new research directions’ in Leonardo, 22:3/4, pp.411-413.

Lehmann, Annette Jael (2013) ‘Life and death in peep boxes: bringing the Civil War to the American home’. in Martschukat, Jűrgen and Niedermeier, Silvan, eds., Violence and visibility in modern history,London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.159-180. ISBN: 9781137378682

Li, Zeng (2019) ‘From affective space to performative depth: Spatial aesthetics in 3-D wuxia films Flying Swords of Dragon Gate (2010) and Sword Master (2016)’, Asian Cinema, 30:1, pp.73-90

Lien, Sigrid (2009) ‘The Glass Plates in the Tobacco Barn Andrew Dahl’s Photographic Production’ in Pictures of Longing: Photography and the Norwegian-American Migration University of Minnesota Press, pp.25-58. ISBN: 9781517901998

Lightfoot, Fredrick S. (1957) ‘The stereographic portraits of Lincoln’. Image, 6:2, pp.36-39.

Limbacher, James L (1968) Four aspects of the film: a history of the development of color, sound, 3-D and widescreen films and their contribution to the art of the motion picture. New York: Brussel and Brussel.

Lindquist-Cock, Elizabeth (1970) ‘Stereoscopic photography and the Western paintings of Albert Bierstadt’ in Art Quarterly, 33:4, pp.360-378.

Lindsey, Rachel McBride (2017) ‘Beyond the Sense Horizon’ in A Communion of Shadows: Religion and Photography in Nineteenth-Century America University of North Carolina Press, pp. ISBN: 9781469633732

Lindsey, Rachel McBride (2017) ‘By Pencil and Camera’ in A Communion of Shadows: Religion and Photography in Nineteenth-Century. AmericaUniversity of North Carolina Press, pp. ISBN: 9781469633732

Lindstrom, Richard (2000) ‘”They all believe they are undiscovered Mary Pickfords”: workers photography and scientific management’. Technology and Culture, 41:4, pp.725-751.

Link, Alessandra (2019) ‘Editing for Expansion: Railroad Photography, Native Peoples, and the American West, 1860–1880’. Western Historical Quarterly, 50:3, pp.281-313

Lippit, Akira Mizuta (1999) ‘Three Phantasies of Cinema – Reproduction, Mimesis, Annihilation’ in Paragraph, 22:3, pp. 213-227.

Lipton, Lenny (1982) Foundations of the Stereoscopic Cinema, New York:Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Lipton, Lenny, Phillips, Sean, Engle, Rob, Townsend, Christopher, Olum, Jeff, Gaffney, Brian, Block, Bruce and McNally, Philip “Captain 3D” (2010) ‘Stereoscopic 3D’ in Okun, Jeffery A. and Zwerman, Susan, eds., The Visual Effects Society handbook of visual effects.  Abingdon: Focal Press, pp.387-464. ISBN: 9780240812427

Liu, Yong. 2018. 3D Cinematic Aesthetics and Storytelling. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-3-319-72741-7

Loader, Alison Reiko (2014) ‘Convergence and collaboration in the Cold: Norman Mclaren and 1950s stereoscopic animation at the National Film Board of Canada’. Animation Journal, pp.4-26.

Loew, Katharina (2013) ‘Tangible Specters : 3-D Cinema in the 1910s’, Film Criticism, 37/38:3/1, pp.87-116.

Long, Burke O. (2001) ‘Lakeside at Chautauqua’s Holy Land.’ Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 92, pp.29-53

Long, Burke O. (2003) Imagining the Holy Land: lands, models and fantasy travels, Bloomington, IN:Indiana University Press. ISBN: 0253341361

Luther, Frederic (1992) ‘John Benjamin Dancer (1812–87): A family history.’ History of Photography, 16:2, pp.123-134.

Luo, Xuan, Kong, Yanmeng, Lawrence, Jason, Martin-Brualla, Ricardo and Seitz, Steve ‘KeystoneDepth: Visulaizing History in 3D’,

Luxenberg, Alisa (1998) ‘Creating Désastres: Andrieu’s Photographs of Urban Ruins in the Paris of 1871’. The Art Bulletin, 80:1, pp.113-137

Luz, Filipe Costa and Peixoto, Rodrigo (2015) ‘The Spectacle of stereoscopy: historical analysis and inputs to the creation of a digial archive of analog stereoscopic photography’, in IX Congresso Sopcom, Coimbra, 494-504.

Lyons, Maura (2012) ‘An embodied landscape: Wounded trees at Gettysburg.’. American Art, 26:3, pp.44-65

Lyons, Maura (2012) ‘An embodied landscape: Wounded trees at Gettysburg’. American Art, 26:3, pp.44-65.

Mahn, Churnjeet (2014) ‘The virtual tourist gaze in Greece, 1897–1905’, Annals of Tourism Research, 48, pp.193-206.

Manolas, Christos, Sandra Pauletto, and Jon Jang (2020) ‘Soundtrack Loudness as a Depth Cue in Stereoscopic 3D Media.’ Convergence, November, p.1354856520968016.

Macgowan, Kenneth (1956) ‘The Screen’s “New Look”: Wider and Deeper’ in The Quarterly of Film, Radio and Television, 11:2, pp.109-130.

Madžoski, Vesna (2011) ‘Avatar Cat People: The Others in 3D’, Cinemascope: independent film journal, 7(15) [15 pages]

Maginnis, Tara (1987) ‘Stereographs as an educational resource in costume history’. TD&T: Theatre Design and Technology, 23:1, pp.25-29

Malin, Brenton J. (2007) ‘Looking white and middle-class: stereoscopic imagery and technology in the early Twentieth-Century United States’ in Quarterly Journal of Speech,93:4, pp.403-424.

Malin, Brenton J. (2014) ‘Touching Images: Stereoscopy, Technocracy, and Popular Photographic Physicalism’ in Feeling mediated: a history of media technology and emotion in America. New York: NYU Press, pp.71-105. ISBN: 9780814760574.

Manovich, Lev (1993) ‘The Mapping of Space: Perspective, Radar, and 3-D Computer Graphics’. Available online at:

Marsh, Joss Lutz (1993) ‘Inimitable double vision: Dickens, Little Dorrit, Photography, Film’ in Dickens Studies Annual: Essays on Victorian fiction, V.22. Penn State University Press, pp.237-282. ISBN: 9780404185428

Mason, Steve (2014) ‘Consciousness and stereoscopic environmental imaging’, Proccedings of SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging, 9014 article 90141F-1

Maréchal, G. and Bennett, Laura (2016) ‘The Animated Stereoscopic Portrait’, Art in Translation, 8:1, pp.41-46,

Martin, Karen (2006) A Short history of the Keystone View Company. Meadville, PA: Johnson-Shaw Stereoscopic Museum

Martins, José Manuel (2014) ‘‘Crows’ vs. ‘Avatar,’ or: 3D vs. Total-Dimension Immersion’, Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Film and Media Studies, 8:1

Mason, Steve (2015) ‘Visual perception and stereoscopic imaging: an artist’s perspective’. Proceedings of SPIE-IS&T, 9391, article 93910C.

Masteller, Richard N. (1981) ‘Western views in eastern parlors: the contribution of the stereograph photographer to the conquest of the West’ in Prospects, 6, pp.55-71.

Mathias, Nikita (2016) ‘Between immersion and media reflexivity: Virtual travel media in the 19th Century’, International Journal of Film and Media Arts, 1:2, pp.22-33

May, Brian and Vidal, Elena (2009) A village lost and found: An annotated tour of the 1850s series of stereo photographs “Scenes in Our Village” by T. R. Williams, London: Frances Lincoln Ltd and The London Stereoscopic Company ISBN: 9780711230392

May, Brian, Pellerin, Denis and Fleming, Paula R. (2013) Diableries: stereoscopic adventures in Hell. London: London Stereoscopic Company. ISBN: 9780957424609

Mayer, David (2002) ‘“Quote the words to prompt the attitudes”: the Victorian performer, the photographer, and the photograph’ in Theatre Survey, 43:2, pp.223-251.

Mayer, Lance and Myers, Gary (1999) ‘Bierstadt and ther 19th-Century American painters in context’. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation,, 38:1, pp.55-67.

Mayorov, Nikolai (2012) ‘A first in cinema… stereoscopic films in Russia and the Soviet Union’ in Studies in Russian and Soviet Cinema, 6:2 pp. 217-239.

McConnell, Frank D. (1973) ‘Song of innocence: The Creature from the Black Lagoon‘. Journal of Popular Film, 2:1, pp.15-28.

McKenzie, Ray (1997) ‘George Washington Wilson and the Victorian landscape aesthetic’ in By Royal Appointment: Aberdeen’s Pioneer Photographer: George Washington Wilson, 1823-1893. Aberdeen: AUL Publihing, pp.16-25. ISBN: 1874078084

McLaren, Norman (1951) ‘Stereographic animation: the synthesis of stereoscopic depth from flat drawings and art work’. SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal, 57, pp.513-519.

Mehrabov, Ilkin (2015) ‘Immersive spectatorship and the future of stereoscopic 3DTV’. VIEW Journal of European Television History and Culture, 4:7, pp.99-109.

Mendelson, Andrew L. and Kitch, Carolyn (2011) ‘Creating a Photographic Record of World War I: “Real History” and Recuperative Memory in Stereography’, Journalism History, 37:3, pp.142-150.

Mendes Flores, Teresa (2015) ‘Stereoscopy, film and the time image: An improbable encounter: Paz dos Reis and Chris Marker’s photographic films.’ in Medeiros, Margarida, Flores, Teresa Mendes and Leal, Joana Cunha (eds.) Photography and cinema: Fifty years of Chris Marker’s La Jetée. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp.123-170. ISBN: 9781443872010

Mendes Flores, Teresa (2018) ‘All The Names: Collections and Historical Research: The Magalhães Nobre Stereo Collection’, Photography and Culture

Mendiburu, Bernard (2009) ‘Fundamentals of stereoscopic imaging’. Digital Cinema Summit, NAB, Las Vegas, April 18 2009‎

Merrin, William (2005) ‘Skylights Onto Infinity: The World In a Stereoscope’ in Simon Popple and Vanessa Toulmin (eds) Visual Delights Two: Audiences and Reception, Eastleigh: John Libbey, pp.161-174. ISBN: 0861966570

Michelle, C. et al. (2015) ‘The Hobbit hyperreality paradox: Polarization among audiences for a 3D high frame rate film’ in Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies.

Michelle, Carolyn, Davis, Charles H., Hardy, Ann L. and Hight, Craig (2017) ‘Pioneering Cinematic Technologies and The Hobbit’s Hyperreality Paradox.’ in Michelle, Carolyn and Davis, Charles H., eds., Fans, Blockbusterisation, and the Transformation of Cinematic Desire: global receptions of The Hobbit film triology. London: Palgrave, pp.159-184. ISBN: 9781137596154

Miles, Melissa (2017) ‘“The Child of the World’s Old Age”: Australian Perceptions of Japan-as-Child’. Journal of Australian Studies, 41:3, pp.312-335.

Mitchell, Rick (2004) ‘The Tragedy of 3-D Cinema’ in Film History, 16, pp.208-215.

Montagu, Ivor (1950) The Third Dimension: Film of the Future? In Manvell, Roger (ed.) The Cinema 1950.  Pelican Books, p. 132-139.

Morgan, Hal and Symmes, Dan (1982) Amazing 3-D, London: Vermilion ISBN: 0316582832/0316582840

Morrison-Low, Alison D (2015) Photography: a Victorian sensation. Edinburgh: National Museums Scotland. ISBN: 9781905267958

Moulten Carter (2013) ‘The Future is a Fairground: Attraction and Absorption in 3D Cinema’ in CineAction, 89, pp.4-13.

Muriuki, Godfrey and Sobania, Neal (2007) ‘The truth be told: stereoscopic photographs, interviews and oral tradition from Mount Kenya’ in Journal of Eastern African Studies,1:1, pp.1-15.

Natale, Simone (2012) ‘Photography and communication media in the Nineteenth Century’ in History of Photography, 36:4, pp.451-456.

Neel, Alexandra (2020) ‘Frozen Bodies: animating the Franklin Relics through Lieutenant John P. Cheyne’s stereoscopic photographs and Charles Dickens’s The Frozen Deep’, Nineteenth-Century Contexts, 42:2, pp.159-180,

Neumann, Dietrich (2008) ‘Instead of the Grand Tour: travel replacements in the nineteenth century’, Perspecta, 41, pp.47-53

Neumann, Mark (2001) ‘Emigrating to New York in 3-D: stereoscopic vision in IMAX’s cinematic city’ in Shiel, Mark and Fitzmaurice, Tony, eds., Cinema and the city: film and urban societies in a global context. Oxford: Blackwell, pp.109-122. ISBN: 9780631222446

Newhall, Beaumont (1944) ‘Photography and the Development of Kinetic Visualization’. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 7, pp.40-45.

Newhall, Beaumont (1954) ‘Looking back at stereo’ in Morgan, Willard D. and Lester, Henry M. (eds.) Stereo Realist manual. New York; London: Morgan & Lester; Fountain Press, pp.375-394. ISBN: 9780871000545

Nisbet, James (2013) ‘Atmospheric Cameras and Ecological Light in the Landscape Photographs of Eadweard Muybridge’. Photography and Culture, 6:2, pp.131-155.

Norling, John A (1939) ‘Three dimensional motion picture’. SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal, 33, pp.613-634.

Norling, John A. (1953) ‘The Stereoscopic art – a reprint.’  Journal of the SMPTE, 60, pp.268-308

Ohrn, Karin B. (1980) ‘Points of View: The Stereograph in America. A Cultural History by Edward W. Earle [Book review]’. Winterthur Portfolio, 15:3, pp.293-295.

Ogawa, David (2007) ‘Arresting nudes in Second Empire Paris’ in History of Photography, 31:4, pp.330-347.

Orestano, Francesca (2018) ‘Little Dorrit’ in Jordan, John, Patten, Robert L.  and Waters, Catherine (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Charles Dickens. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.245-259. ISBN: 9780198743415

Paakspuu, Kalli (2007) ‘Winning or Losing the West: The Photographic Act’. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 27:1, pp.48-58.

Palmquist, Peter E. (1977) ‘Imagemakers of the Modoc War: Louis Heller and Eadweard Muybridge’. The Journal of California Anthropology, 4:4, pp.206-241.

Palmquist, Peter E. (1979) ‘The California Indian in three-dimensional photography’ in Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, 1:1, pp.89-116.

Palmquist, Peter E. (1986) Return to El Dorado: a century of California stereographs. California Museum of Photography.

Palmer, Gary (2004) ‘3-D Filmography’ in Film History, 16:3, pp.256-276.

Parmeggiani, Paolo (2016) ‘Between the point of view and the point of being: the Space of the stereoscopic tours’, International Journal of Film and Media Arts, 1:2, pp.34-46

Parmeggiani, Paolo (2016) ‘From grand tour to virtual tour: Italy through the stereoscope in 1900’. Visual Studies, 31:3, pp.231-247.

Parnell, Geoffrey (2016) ‘The earliest stereograph of the Tower of London?’, London Archaeologist, 14:8, pp.199-202

Pattison, William D (1962) ‘The Pacific Railroad rediscovered’. Geographical Review, 52:1, pp.25-36

Paul, William (2004) ‘Breaking the Fourth Wall: ‘Belascoism’, Modernism and a 3-D Kiss Me Kate’ in Film History, 16:3, pp.229-242.

Paul, William (1993) ‘The Aesthetics of Emergence’ in Film History, 5:3, pp.321-355.

Payne, Peter L. (1997) By Royal appointment: Aberdeen’s pioneer photographer, George Washington Wilson, 1823-1893. Aberdeen: University of Aberdeen. ISBN: 1874078084

Peixoto, Rodrigo, Luz, Filipe Costa and Oliveira, Jorge (2019) ‘The digitalization of analogue stereo photographs and the creation of the digital stereo archive’, in Archiving Conference, Archiving 2019 Final Program and Proceedings, Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 171-176

Pellerin, Denis (2017) ‘The quest for stereoscopic movement: Was the first film ever in 3-D?’ International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 1:1, pp.26-38.

Pellerin, Denis and May, Brian (2014) The poor man’s picture gallery: Stereoscopy versus paintings in the Victorian era. London: Carlton Books/London Stereoscopic Company. ISBN: 978-0957424616

Pellerin, Denis and May, Brian (2016) Crinoline: fashion’s most magnificent disaster. London: London Stereoscopic Company. ISBN: 9780957424623

Perin, Jacques (1993) Jules Richard et la magie du relief. Mialet: Cyclope. ISBN: 9782910284015

Permana, Dede, Sarwanto, Sarwanto and Rintayati, Peduk (2018) ‘Integration of Stereoscopic 3D Images in Primary School Textbooks’, International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 5:4, pp.45-55,  Available:

Peterich, Gerda (1956) ‘”GWW”: the instantaneous photography of a photographer of Queen Victoria’s time, Georg Washington Wilson’. Image: Journal of Photography and Motion Pictures of the George Eastman House, 5:10, pp.220-229.

Pierson, Michele (2017) ‘Where Shadow Play Is Cinema: The Exhibition and Critical Reception of Ken Jacobs’s Shadow Plays in the 1960s and 1970s’, Film History, 29:3, pp.25, 

Pierson, Ryan (2012) ‘Méliès in stereopsis’. The Funambulist

Pietrobruno, Sheenagh (2011) ‘The Stereoscope and the miniature’ in Early Popular Visual Culture,9:3, pp.171-190.

Plunkett, John (2005) ‘Optical recreations and Victorian literature’ in Essays and Studies, 58, pp.1-28.

Plunkett, John (2007) ‘Depth, colour, movement: embodied vision and the stereoscope’ in Lyons, James and Plunkett, John, (eds.), Multimedia histories: from the magic lantern to the internet, Exeter: Exeter University Press, pp.117-131 ISBN: 9780859897730

Plunkett, John (2008) ‘Selling stereoscopy, 1890–1915: Penny arcades, automatic machines and American salesmen.’ in Early Popular Visual Culture,6:3, pp.239-255.

Plunkett, John (2013) ‘“Feeling Seeing”: Touch, Vision and the Stereoscope’, History of Photography, 37:4, pp.389-396.

Popov, Vladimir Ilyich (2015) ‘3D Cinematography in the Cinema Art of Kazakhstan: Technological, Film Studying and Social Aspects’. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 12:11, pp.830-835.

Popple, Simon (2005) ‘Indecent exposures: photography, vice and the moral dilemma in Victorian Britain’ in Early Popular Visual Culture, 3:2, pp.113-133.

Pölönen, Monika, Salmimaa, Marja, Takatalo, Jari M. and Häkkinen, Jukka P. (2012) ‘Subjective experiences of watching stereoscopic Avatar and U2 3D in a cinema’ in Journal of Electronic Imaging, 21:1

Potter, Jonathan (2016) ‘The Stereoscope and Popular Fiction: Imagination and Narrative in the Victorian Home’ in Journal of Victorian Culture 1–17.

Price, C. Aaron, Lee, Hee-Sun, Subbarao, Mark, Kasal, Evan and Aguilera, Julieta (2015) ‘Comparing Short- and Long-Term Learning Effects Between Stereoscopic and Two-Dimensional Film at a Planetarium’, Science Education, 99:6, pp.1118-1142,

Pride, Jennifer S. (2016) ‘Looking through the Parisian window: Caillebotte, Zola and the Post-Haussmann interior’, Art Inquiries, 17:1, pp.17-29

Prince, Stephen (2012) ‘Immersive aesthetics’ in Digital visual effects in cinema: the seduction of reality. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press,  pp.183-220. ISBN: 9780813551869

Pringle, Reg V. (2011) The George Washington Wilson Photographic Archive: a postscript

Purse, Lisa (2013) ‘The Digital in Three Dimensions’ in Purse, Lisa, Digital Imaging in Popular Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press: 129-151. ISBN: 0748646906

Pytel, Marek (2013) ‘Eadweard Muybridge: Inverted modernism and the stereoscopic vision’ in Early Popular Visual Culture, 11:1, pp.71-82.

Quesnel, Denise, Lantin, Maria, Goldman, Alan and Arden, Sean (2013) High Frame Rate (HFR) white paper. Vancouver: S3D Centre.

Quigley, Martin (1953) New screen techniques. New York:Quigley Publishing Company.

Raiford, Leigh (2013) ‘Marcus Garvey in Stereograph’, Small Axe: A Caribbean Journal of Criticism, 17:1 (40), pp.263-280.

Raposo, Sara (2016) ‘Stereoscopic therapy: Fun or remedy?’, International Journal of Film and Media Arts, 1:2, pp.48-56.

Rayfield, Beth (1998) ‘Double Dating: Courtship Ritual and the Radical Potential of Stereographic Viewing’, Iconomania: studies in visual culture, 1-7,

Raven, Lucy (2011) ‘The Second Eye’, MIT Press Journals, 138.1, pp133-139

Read, Jenny C. A. (2015) ‘What is stereoscopic vision good for?’, Proceedings of SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging [online], 9391 article 93910N

Reed, Arden (2014) ‘New sites for slowness: speed and nineteenth-century stereoscopy’. Qui Parle: Critical Humanities and Social Sciences, 22:2, pp.69-99.

Reed, Arden (2017) Slow art: the experience of looking, sacred images to James Turrell. Oakland, California: University of California Press. ISBN: 9780520285507

Reeder, Warwick (1999) ‘The Stereograph and the album portrait in Colonial Sydney 1859-62.’, History of Photography, 23:2, pp.181-186,

Reeve, Simon and Flock, Jason (2010) ‘Basic principles of stereoscopic 3D’.

Reynaud, F.; Tabrun, C. and Timby, K. (eds.) (2000) Paris in 3-D: from stereoscopy to virtual reality 1850- 2000. Paris-Musées. Paris: Booth-Clibborn ISBN: 9781861541628

Richard, Pierre-Marc (1998) ‘Life in Three Dimensions: The Charm of Stereoscopy’ in Michael Frizot (ed) A New History of Photography, Köln: Könemann pp.174-183. ISBN: 3829013280

Richardson, John (1999) ‘Double vision is but perfect vision’,

Richardson, Martin ed. (2014) Techniques and principles in three-dimensional imaging: an introductory approach. Hershey, PA: Information Science Research. ISBN: 9781466649323

Ricupero, Bryan, Dalton, Glory and Lehman, Amanda (2019) ‘Building and Enhancing Stereographic Digitial Collections: Working Across Departments to Augment Reality’, in 2019 ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL), 343-344

Rivero, Juan-Antonio Fernandez (2009) ‘Romantic Spain in stereoview’. Cuardernos de La Alhambra, 44, pp.230-234.

Rivero, Juan A.F (2016) ‘British stereo photographers in Spain: Frank M. Good’, International Journal of Film and Media Arts, 1:2, pp.76-88.

Rivero, Juan Antonio Fernández and Ballesteros, María Teresa García (2018) ‘Spanish stereoscopic commercial photography in the 20th century: “El Turismo Práctico” and “Rellev”’. International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 2:2, pp.4-27

Rizov, Vadim (2014) ‘Goodbye to 3-D rules’. Filmmaker: The Magazine of Independent Film, 23(1), 8-9.

Rogers, Ariel (2013) ‘Points of convergence: the conceptualizing the appeal of 3D cinema then and now (Chapter 5)’ in Rogers, Ariel, ed., Cinematic appeals: the experience of new movie technologies. New York: Columbia University Press, pp.179-226. ISBN: 9780231159173

Ronfard, Rémi  and Gabriel Taubin (eds) Image and Geometry Processing for 3-D Cinematography, London: Springer, pp.11-52 ISBN 3642123910

Rooney, Brendan, Ciarán Benson, and Eilis Hennessy (2012) ‘The Apparent Reality of Movies and Emotional Arousal: A Study Using Physiological and Self-report Measures,’ in Poetics 40: 5, pp. 405–422, http://dx.doi.org10.1016/j.poetic.2012.07.004

Rooney, Brendan and Hennessey, Ellis (2013) ‘Actually in the cinema: a field study comparing real 3D and 2D movie patrons’ attention, emotion and film satisfaction’.  Media Psychology, 16:4, pp.441-460,

Ross, Miriam (2011) ‘Spectacular Dimensions: 3D Dance Films’ in Sense of Cinema 61. Available online at

Ross, Miriam (2012) ‘The 3-D aesthetic: Avatarand hyperhaptic visuality’ in Screen 53:4, pp.381-397.

Ross, Miriam (2013) ‘Stereoscopic visuality: Where is the screen, where is the film?’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.406-414

Ross, Miriam (2013) ‘Critical Response I: Response to Thomas Elsaesser’, Critical Inquiry, 39:4, pp.874-877.

Ross, Miriam (2015) 3D Cinema: Optical Illusions and Tactile Experiences, Houndmills, Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN: 9781137378569

Ross, Miriam (2015) 3D cinema: optical illusions and tactile experiences. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ross, Miriam (2016) ‘Transformative bodies in 3D cinema: Computer generated morphing and extra-sensory depth cues’ in Spöhrer, Markus, ed., Die ästhetisch-narrativen Dimensionen des 3D-Films: neuen Perspektive der Stereoskopie. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien, pp.123-136. ISBN: 9783658094218.

Ross, Miriam (2019) ‘From the material to the virtual: the pornographic body in stereoscopic photography, 3D cinema and virtual reality’, Screen, 60:4, pp.548-566

Ross, Miriam (2019) ‘What good is imperfect 3D?’, in 30th Stereoscopic Displays and Applications Conference, Burlingame, CA

Ross, Miriam (2020) Reconfigurations of Screen Borders: The New or Not-So-New Aspect Ratios in Sæther, Susanne Ø. and Bull, Synne T. (eds.) Screen space reconfigured. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp.105-126 ISBN: 9789089649928 e-isbn 9789048529056

Ross, Sara (2012). Invitation to the Voyage: The Flight Sequence in Contemporary 3D Cinema. Film History: An International Journal24:2. pp.210-220.

Rowe, Jeremy (2008) Arizona Pioneer Photographer George H. Rothrock.

Rowe, Jeremy (2008) ‘George H. Rothrock: Arizona Pioneer Photographer’, The Journal of Arizona History, 49:4, pp.355-383.

Rowe, Jeremy (2008) ‘A George Rothrock Portfolio’, The Journal of Arizona History, 49:4, pp.384-392.

Rowe, Jeremy (2014) Arizona stereographs, 1865-1930. Nevada City, Ca: Carl Mautz. ISBN: 9781887694582

Rubio, Roberto Rodriguez, Bonaventura, Rina Di, Kournoutas, Ioannis, Barakat, Dania, Vigo, Vera, El-Sayed, Ivan and Abla, Adib A. (2019) ‘Stereoscopy in Surgical Neuroanatomy: Past, Present, and Future’, Operative Neurosurgery

Rule, John T. (1939) ‘The Photography of Illusion: Pictures in Three Dimensions’. The American Scholar, 8:4, pp.456-467.

Ruppel, Wolfgang, Alff, Yannic and Göllner, Thomas (2013) ‘Study on the Acceptance of Higher Frame Rate Stereoscopic 3D in Digital Cinema’. SMPTE Conferences, 2013:10, pp.1-12,

Russell, Peter I. (1998) ‘Stereophotographs: The 3-D View of Geology and Mining History’, Rocks & Minerals, 73:5, pp.348-350

Sacks, Oliver W. (2006) ‘Stereo Sue: why two eyes are better than one’.  The New Yorker, 19th June, 64-73

Salvesen, Britt (1997) ‘“The Most Magnificent, Useful, and Interesting Souvenir”: Representations of the International Exhibition of 1862’ in Visual Resources: An International Journal of Documentation,13:1, pp.1-32.

Salvesen, Britt (2014) Solid sight: Sculpture in Stereo

Salvesen, Britt (2017) ‘Solid sight: sculpture in stereo’ in Hamill, Sarah and Luke, Megan R., eds., Photography and sculpture: the art object in reproduction. Los Angeles: The Getty Research Institute, pp.192-109. ISBN: 9781606065341

Salvesen, Britt ed. (2018) 3D: Double vision, London: Prestel. ISBN: 9783791356686

Salvesen, Britt (2018) ‘The Modern Art Notes Podcast’, 3D: Double Vision

Salvesen, Britt (2019) A History of 3D in 12 examples Art Matters Lectures, March 7th 2019

Salvesen, Britt (2019) View-Master: Novelty and Nostalgia, Art Matters Lectures, March 14th

Sammons, Eddie (1992) The World of 3D Movies, A Delphi.

Sandifer, Philip (2011) ‘Out of the screen and into the theatre: 3-D film as demo’ in Cinema Journal, 50:3, pp.62-78.

Sandweiss, Martha A. (2006) ‘A stereoscopic view of the American West’.  Princeton University Library Chronicle, 67(2), 271-289.

Santaren, Juan Fernandez (2015) ‘Santiago Ramon y Cajal and three-dimensional cinema’. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 24:2, pp.111-22.

Schaaf, Larry (1980) ‘Piazzi Smyth at Tenerife: Part I, The expedition and the resulting book’. History of Photography, 4, pp.289-307.

Schaaf, Larry (1981) ‘Piazzi Smyth at Teneriffe: Part II, Photography and the Disciples of Constable and Harding’. History of Photography, 5, pp.27-50.

Schiavo, Laura B. (2003) ‘From Phantom Image to Perfect Vision: Physiological Optics, Commercial Photography, and the Popularization of the Stereoscope’, In Gitelman and Pingree G (eds) New Media, 1740 – 1915. London: The MIT Press. ISBN: 0262572281

Schimmelman, Janice G. (2013) Brewster, Duboscq and the early printed stereoview, 1851-1853. The Collodion Press. ISBN: 9780982945667

Schinto, Jeanne (2002) ‘”Deviled ham untouched by hands”: food-related vintage stereoviews’ in Gastronomica: the journal of food and culture, 2:4, pp.53-59.

Schröter, Jens (2014) 3D: History, Theory and Aesthetics of the Transplane Image. New York: Continuum Publishing Corporation. ISBN: 9781441194084

Schröter, Jens (2019) Technology, Form and Power: The Example of Stereoscopy [preprint]

Schwartz, Joan M. (1996) ‘The Geography Lesson: photographs and the construction of imaginative geographies’ in Journal of Historical Geography, 22:1, pp.16-45.

Schulze, Joshua (2017) ‘ In defense of stereoscopy: A reconsideration of 3D in Owen Weetch’s Expressive spaces in digital 3D cinema [Book review]’, MediascapeFall 2017

Seel, Peter B. (2010) ‘Visualizing the world in 3-D from stereoscope to the Super Bowl’ in Television Quarterly, 39:1, pp.4-12

Senelick, Laurence (1999) ‘Double vision: Second Empire theatre in stereographs’ in Theatre Research International, 24:1, pp.82-88.

Sheehan, Tanya (2014) ‘Confronting Taboo: Photography and the art of Jacob Lawrence’. American Art, 28:3, pp.28-51.

Siegel, Nancy (2005) ‘”I never had so difficult a picture to paint”: Albert Bierstadt’s White Mountain Scenery and The Emerald Pool’. Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide: a journal of nineteenth-century visual culture 4:3,

Silverman, Robert J. (1993) ‘The Stereoscope and photographic depiction in the 19th Century’ in Technology and Culture, 34:4, pp.729-756.

Skidmore, Colleen (1998) ‘”All that is interesting in the Canadas”: William Notman’s maple box portfolio of stereographic views, 1860’. Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue d’Etudes Canadiennes, 32:4, pp.69-90.

Skidmore, Colleen (1998) ‘CONCORDIA SALUS: Triumphal Arches at Montréal, 1860’. Journal of Canadian Art History / Annales d’histoire de l’art Canadien, 19:1, pp.86-112.

Smith, David Harris (2013) ‘Colin Low and Transitions 3D: Innovating Immersive Cinema’ in Public, 47, pp.142-148

Smith, Lindsay (1989) ‘The Elusive depth of field: stereoscopy and the Pre-Raphaelities’ in Pointon, Marcia (ed.) Pre-Raphaelites Re-Viewed, Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp.84-99 ISBN: 978-0719028212

Smith, Lindsay (2013) ‘Roger Fenton’s Nature Morte: The Pull of Sculpture’. History of Photography, 37:4, pp.397-411.

Smith, Michael D., Ludé, Peter and Hogan, Bill (2011) 3D cinema and television technology: the first 100 years, White Plains, N.Y.: SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) ISBN: 9781614829003

Smith, Sam. N. (2005) The books, Treatises and Manuals of Stereoscopy, self-published

Spiro, Lisa (2006) History through the stereoscope: stereoscopy and virtual travel. Houston TX:, Rice University.

Sobania, Neal (2002) ‘But where are the cattle? Popular images of Maasai and Zulus across the Twentieth Century.’ in Visual Anthropology, 15, pp.313-346.

Sobieraj, Sabrina and Krämer, Nicole C. (2014) ‘Do 3D moviegoers enjoy screenings more than 2D moviegoers?—On the impact of 3D fantasy movie perception on enjoyment’.  Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 23:4, pp.430-448,

Southall, Thomas W (1979) ‘White Mountain stereographs and the development of a collective vision ‘ in Earle, Edward W.,(ed.) Points of view: the stereograph in America: a cultural history. Rochester, NY: Visual Studies Workshop Press in collaboration with the Gallery Association of New York State, pp.97-108. ISBN: 9780898220063

Speer, Lance (1989) ‘Before holography: a call for visual literacy’ in Leonardo, 22:3/4, pp.299-306.

Spinner, Cheryl (2015) ‘The Spell and the Scalpel: Scientific Sight in Early 3D Photography’. J19: The Journal of Nineteenth-Century Americanists, 3:2, pp.436-445

Spöhrer, Markus (2016) ‘The aesthetic and narrative dimensions of 3D film: new perspectives on stereoscopy’ in Spöhrer, Markus, ed., in Spöhrer, Markus, ed., Die ästhetisch-narrativen Dimensionen des 3D-Films: neuen Perspektive der Stereoskopie. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien 19-34. ISBN: 9783658094218.

Spottiswoode, Raymond (1952) ‘Progress in three-dimensional films at the Festival of Britain’, Journal of the SMPTE, 58, pp.291-303.

Spottiswoode, Raymond, Spottiswoode, Nigel and Smith, Charles W. (1952) ‘Basic principles of the three-dimensional film’, Journal of the SMPTE, 59, pp.249-286.

Spottiswoode, Raymond and Spottiswoode, Nigel (1953) The theory of stereoscopic transmission and its application to the motion picture, Berkeley & Los Angeles:University of California Press.

Stakelon, Pauline (2010) ‘Travel through the stereoscope: movement and narrative in topological stereoview collections of Europe.’ in Media History,16:4, pp.407-422. 

Stambler, Benita and Pinto, Isabel (2016) ‘Coming to America: Re-inventing and re-using the 1903 Delhi durbar’. Cogent Arts & Humanities, 3:1.

Staples, Shelley (2002) The Machine in the Parlor: Naturalizing and Standardizing Labor and Industry Through the Stereoscope.

Stark, Amy E. (1981) ‘Lovell Augustus Reeve (1814-1865), publisher and patron of the stereograph’ in History of Photography,  5:1, pp.3-15

Steinbach, Leonard (2011) ‘3D or Not 3D? Is that a Question?’ in Curator: The Museum Journal, 54:1, pp.41-54.

Stevenson, Sara (2006) ‘The Hill View: ‘the eye unsatisfied and dim with gazing’’. History of Photography, 30:3, pp.213-233.

Stilgoe, John R. (2005) ‘The Landscape in limbo’ in Landscape and images. University of Virginia Press, pp.278-285. ISBN: 9780813937533

Strain, Eileen (1996) ‘Exotic bodies, distant landscapes: touristic viewing and popularized anthropology in the nineteenth century’. Wide Angle, 18:2, pp.70-100.

Strain, Ellen (1996/1997) ‘Stereoscopic visions: touring the Panama Canal’ in Visual Anthropology Review, 12:2, pp.44-58 ISBN: 9780813531878.

Strain, Ellen (2003) ‘Technological identification: stereography and the Panama Canal’ in Public places, private journeys: ethnography, entertainment and the tourist gaze, Rutgers University Press. ISBN: 9780813531878

Swensen, James R. (2017) ‘Reflections in the water: An exploration of the various uses of C. R. Savage’s 1875 photograph of the Mass Baptism of the Shivwit’, Journal of Mormon History, 43:3, pp.96-121,

Tagg, John (2012) ‘The Archiving Machine; or, The Camera and the Filing Cabinet’. Grey Room, 47, pp.24-37.

Taft, Robert (1938) Photography and the American scene, 1839-1899, New York: Dover.

Taylor, Owen K. (1953) Stereography: a bibliography compiled by a committee from four leading public libraries. New York: Stereoscopic Society of America

Taylor, Roger (1981) George Washington Wilson, artist and photographer, 1823-1893. Aberdeen:Aberdeen University Press.  ISBN: 0080257607

Taylor, Roger (1997) ‘George Washington Wilson: the man and his methods: a photographic artistic assessment’ in By Royal Appointment: Aberdeen’s Pioneer Photographer: George Washington Wilson, 1823-1893. Aberdeen: AUL Publishing, pp.8-15. ISBN: 1874078084

Taylor, Roger (2018) George Washington Wilson, artist and photographer, 1823-1893. London: London Stereoscopic Company. ISBN: 9780957424692

Telotte, J. P. (2004) ‘Making tele-contact: 3D film and The Creature from the Black Lagoon‘. Extrapolation, 45:3, pp.294-304.

Terlutter, Ralf, Diehl, Sandra, Koinig, Isabell and Waiguny, Martin K. J. (2016) ‘Positive or Negative Effects of Technology Enhancement for Brand Placements? Memory of Brand Placements in 2D, 3D, and 4D Movies’. Media Psychology, 19:4, pp.505-533.

Teukolsky, Rachel (2016) ‘Stereoscopy and the global picturesque’ in Redling, Erik, ed., Traveling traditions: nineteenth century cultural concepts and transatlantic intellectual networks. Berlin: De Gruyter, pp.189-212. ISBN: 9783110411669

Teukolsky, Rachel (2020) ‘Victorian erotic photographs and the intimate public sphere’, Nineteenth-Century Contexts, 42:2, pp.201-219

Teukolsky, Rachel (2020) Picture world: Image, Aesthetics, and Victorian New Media. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 9780198859734

Teulade, Vincent, Bothun, Deborah K., Antarieu, Francois, Fenez, Marcel, Sharkey, Kenneth and Stokes, Phil (2010) 3D Here and Now… a goose that lays a golden egg?, Price Waterhouse Coopers.

Thompson, Kristin (2009) ‘Has 3-D already failed?’, Observations on Film Art, 28 August 2009,

Thompson, Kristin (2011) ‘As the summer winds down, is 3D doing the same?’, Observations on Film Art, 30 August 2011

Thompson, Kristin (2011) ‘Do not forget to return your 3D glasses’, Observations on Film Art, 27 July 2011,

Thompson, Kristin (2011) ‘Has 3D already failed? The Sequel, part 2: RealDsgusted’, Observations on Film Art, 25 January 2011

Thompson, Kristin and Bordwell, David (2007) Bwana Beowulf

Timby, Kim (2005) ‘Colour photography and stereoscopy: parallel histories’ in History of Photography, 29:2, pp.183-196.

Timby, Kim (2012) ‘”Cinema in a single photo”: the animated screen portrait of the 1910s’. in Lugon, Olivier and Guido, Laurent, eds., Between still and moving images. New Barnet: John Libbey, pp.97-111. ISBN: 9780861967070

Timby, Kim (2015) 3D and animated lenticular photography: between Utopia and entertainment. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. ISBN: 9783110448078/9783110413069

Tongue, Michael (2006) 3D expo 1862: a magical journey to Victorian England.  Stockholm: Discovery Books. ISBN: 9789197211826

Tooming, Peeter (1992) ‘The Stereo-photographs of Edmund Russow’. History of Photography, 16:2, pp.183-184.

Trachtenberg, Alan (1985) ‘Albums of War: On Reading Civil War Photographs’. Representations, 9, pp.1-32

Tricart, Céline (2016) 3D filmmaking: techniques and best practices for stereoscopic filmmakers. Abingdon, Oxon.: Focal Press. ISBN: 9781138847897

Trotter, David (2004) ‘Stereoscopy: Modernism and the ‘Haptic” in Critical Quarterly, 46:4, pp.38-58.

Tryon, Chuck (2013) ‘Reboot Cinema’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.432-437 10.1177/1354856513494179

Turnacker, Katalin (2014) ‘Harmony of Senses – 3D Documentaries of Herzog and Wenders’, Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Film and Media Studies, 8:1, pp.97-111

Turnock, Julie (2013) ‘ Removing the Pane of Glass: The Hobbit, 3D High Frame Rate Filmmaking, and the Rhetoric of Digital Convergence’, Film Criticism, 37/38:3/1, pp.30-59.

Turrill, Charles B. (1918) ‘An early California photographer: C.E. Watkins’ in  News Notes of California Libraries, 13:1, pp.29-37

Tyler, Parker (1954) ‘Movie Note: The 3-D’s’. The Kenyon Review, 16:3, pp.468-472.

Uricchio, William (2011) ‘A ‘proper point of view’: The panorama and some of its early media iterations’, Early Popular Visual Culture, 9:3, pp.225-238.

Utterson, Andrew (2016) ‘Goodbye to cinema? Jean-Luc Godard’s Adieu au langage (2014) as 3D images at the edge of history’, Studies in French Cinema pp.1-16,

Utterson, Andrew (2017) ‘Practice Makes Imperfect: Technology and the Creative Imperfections of Jean-Luc Godard’s Three-Dimensional (3D) Cinema’, Quarterly Review of Film and Video, 34:3,pp.295-308.

van Baarle, Kristof (2019) ‘Capturing Bodies as Objects: Stereography and the Diorama at Work in Kris Verdonck’s ISOS’ in Wynants, Nele (ed.) Media Archaeology and Intermedial Performance: Deep Time of the Theatre. Cham: Springer International, pp.173-191

VanderKnyff, Rick (2007) ‘Parlor illusions: stereoscopic views of Sub-Saharan Africa.’ in African Arts,40:3, pp.50-63.

Verhoeff, Nanna (2016) ‘Surface explorations: 3D moving images as cartographies of time’, Espacio, Tiempo y Forma Serie VII  Historis del Arte,

Verhoeff, Nanna (2020) ‘Surface Explorations: 3D Moving Images as Cartographies of Time’ in Sæther, Susanne Ø. and Bull, Synne T. (eds.) Screen space reconfigured. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp.179-200. ISBN: 9789089649928 e-isbn 9789048529056

Verstraete, Ginette (2002) ‘Railroading America: towards a materials study of the nation.’ Theory, Culture and Society 19:5/6, pp.145-149.

Vivian, Cassandra (2003) ‘Keystone View Company, purveyors of fine images’. Western Pennsylvania History, 86:3, pp.30-40.

Vincs, Kim and McCormick, John (2010) ‘Touching space: using motion capture and stereo projection to create a “Virtual Haptics” of dance’, in Leonardo, 43:4, pp.359-366.

Vogt, Frederic. and Wagner, Alexander. Y. (2012) ‘Stereo pairs in astrophysics’, in  Astrophysics and Space Science, 337:1, pp.79-92.

Wade, Nicholas J. (1983) Brewster and Wheatstone on vision, London: Published for Experimental Psychology Society by Academic Press. ISBN: 9780127295503

Wade, Nicholas J. (1987) ‘On the late invention of the stereoscope.’ in Perception, 16, pp.785-818.

Wade, Nicholas J. and Ono, Hiroshi (1985) ‘The stereoscopic views of Wheatstone and Brewster’, in Psychological Research, 47, pp.125-133.

Wade, Nicholas J. (1987) ‘On the late invention of the stereoscope.’ in Perception, 16, pp.785-818.

Wade, Nicholas J. (2002) ‘Charles Wheatsone (1802-1875) [Guest editorial]’ in Perception, 31, pp.265-272.

Wade, Nicholas J. (2003) ‘The Chimenti controversy’, Perception, 32, pp.185-200.

Wade, Nicholas J. and Ono, Hiroshi (2012) ‘Early studies of binocular and stereoscopic vision’ in Japanese Psychological Research, 54:1, pp.54-70.

Wade, Nicholas J. (2012) ‘The ghost of Helioth and his stereoscope: the return of a phantom.’, in  Perception, 41:8, pp.1001-1002.

Wade, Nicholas J. (2012) ‘Wheatstone and the origins of moving stereoscopic images.’, in Perception, 41:8, pp.901-924.

Wade, Nicholas J. (2013) ‘The Experimental Origins of Cinema, Stereo and their Combination’ in Public, 47, pp.60-71

Wade, Nicholas J. (2016) ‘Capturing Motion and Depth before Cinematography’. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 25:1, pp.3-22.

Wade, Nicholas J. (2016) ‘Stereoscopic vision’ in Art and illusionists Springer, pp.335-354. ISBN: 9783319252278.

Wade, Nicholas J. (2016) ‘Faces and Photography in 19th-Century Visual Science’. Perception, 45:9, pp.1008-35.

Wade, Nicholas J. (2017) ‘Seeing with two eyes and hearing with two ears’. International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 1:1, pp.4-25.

Wajda, Shirley (1992) ‘A room with a viewer: the parlor stereoscope, comic stereographs, and the psychic role of play in Victorian America’ in Grover, Kathryn, (ed.) Hard at play: leisure in America, 1840-1940, Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, pp.112-138 ISBN: 9780870237928

Waldsmith, John S. (2002) Stereo views: an illustrated history and price guide, 2nd ed. Iola, WI:Gazelle ISBN: 9780873494090

Walter, Leslie (1864) ‘In a stereoscope [short story]’. Sharpe’s London Magazine of Entertainment and Instruction for General Reading, pp.83-89.

Walters, Ben (2009) ‘The great leap forward’. Sight and Sound, 19:3, pp.38-43.

Wasielewski, Amanda (2015) ‘Lurking Within Reach: Stereoscopic Photomicrography in the 1860s’. History of Photography 39:1, pp.56-70,

Wasson, Haidee (2013) ‘Industrial Magic and Light: 3D at the New York’s World Fair (1939)’ in in Public, 47, pp.123-131

Watson, Cameron J. (2020) ‘The Ethnographer Who Never Was: Eulalia de Abaitua as a Lens on Fin-de-Siècle Basque Society’, Visual Anthropology, 33:3, pp.260-277

Weaver, Heather A. (2012) ‘Object lessons: a cultural genealogy of the dunce cap and the apple as visual tropes of American education’, Paedagogica Historica, 48:2, pp.215-241. 10.1080/00309230.2011.560856

Wedel, Michael (2015) Sculpting with light: early fime style, stereoscopic vision and the idea of a “plastic art in motion” in Ligensa, Annemone and Kreimeier, Klaus (eds.) Film 1900: Technology, perception culture. Indiana University Press, pp.201-223

Weetch, Owen (2012) ‘Reading Parallax: 3D Meaning Construction in The Hole’ in CineAction, 89,  pp. 14-21

Weetch, Owen (2016) Expressive Spaces in Digital 3D Cinema, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. ISBN: 978-1-137-54266-3

Weetch, Owen (2016) ‘Stepping out: Victory and Utopia in the 3D instalments of the Step Up franchise’ in Spöhrer, Markus, ed., Die ästhetisch-narrativen Dimensionen des 3D-Films: neuen Perspektive der Stereoskopie. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien, pp.137-150. ISBN: 9783658094218.

Wenders, Wim (2013) A Film for Pina: Keynote of the Toronto International Stereoscopic 3D Conference’ in Public, 47, pp.214-235

West, Nancy M. (1996) ‘Fantasy, photography, and the marketplace: Oliver Wendell Holmes and the stereoscope’ in Nineteenth-Century Contexts,19:3, pp.231-258.

Wester, Susan (1992) ‘Three Nineteenth-Century Photographers of the Ruins of Ancient Rome.’ Visual Resources, 8:4, pp.343-354,

Wheatstone, Charles (1838) ‘Contributions to the physiology of vision, part the first: On some remarkable, and hitherto unobserved, phenomena of binocular vision’ in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 128, pp.371-394.

Wheatstone, Charles (1852) ‘The Bakerian Lecture: Contributions to the physiology of vision, part the second: On some remarkable, and hitherto unobserved, phenomena of binocular vision’ in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 142, pp. 1-17.

Whissel, Kristen (2013) ‘Guest editor’s introduction: genealogical and archaeological approaches to 3-D’, Film Criticism, 37/38: 3/1, pp.6-11.

Whissel, Kristen (2016) ‘Parallax Effects: Epistemology, Affect and Digital 3D Cinema’ Journal of Visual Culture 15:2, 233–249.
Whissel, Kristen (2020) Digital 3D, Parallax Effects, and the Construction of Film Space in Tangled 3D and Cave of Forgotten Dreams 3D in Sæther, Susanne Ø. and Bull, Synne T. (eds.) Screen space reconfigured. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. pp.77-104, ISBN: 9789089649928 e-isbn 9789048529056

White, Kenneth (2013) ‘Muybridge’s Enthalpy’ in Public, 47, pp.94-109

Whittlesey, Lee H. (1999) ”Everyone Can Understand a Picture’: Photographers and the Promotion of Early Yellowstone’. Montana: the Magazine of Western History, 49:2, pp.2-13

Wilcox, Laurie M., Allison, Robert S., Helliker, John, Dunk, Bert and Anthony, Roy C. (2015) ‘Evidence that Viewers Prefer Higher Frame-Rate Film’.  ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 12:4, pp.1-12,

Willems, Philippe (2016) ‘Virtual Reality in the Age of Panoramas: Mapping Out Buildings, a Village, Capitals, and Hell’, Dix-Neuf, 20:2, pp.187-212

Willis, Artemis (2016) ‘Between nonfiction screen practice and nonfiction peep practice: The Keystone ‘600 Set’ and the geographical mode of representation’. Early Popular Visual Culture, 13:4, pp.293-312.

Willumson, Glenn G. (1988) ‘Alfred Hart: photographer of the Central Pacific Railroad’ in History of Photography, 12:1, pp.61-75.

Willumson, Glenn (2013) Iron Muse: photographing the Transcontinental Railroad.  Berkeley: University of California Press.  ISBN: 9780520270947

Wilson, Bonnie G. (1990) ‘Working the Light: Nineteenth-Century Professional Photographers in Minnesota’. Minnesota History, 52:2, pp.42-60.

Wilson, Robert G. (1996) ‘William Notman’s stereo perspective: The Victoria Bridge.’. History of Photography, 20:2, pp.108-112.

Wing, Paul (1996) Stereoscopes: the first hundred years, Nashua, NH: Transition Publishing ISBN: 9780965449748

Withers, Charles (1994) ‘Picturing Highland landscapes: George Washington Wilson and the photography of the Scottish Highlands’, Landscape Research, 19:2, pp.68-79,

Wittlief, Kenneth (2007) ‘Stereoscopic 3D film and animation: getting it right’.  SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, 41:3, pp.2,

Wood, Aylish (2015) ‘Intangible spaces: Three-dimensional technology in Hugo and IMAX in The Dark Knight’.  Convergence: the International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies , 21:2, pp.169-181,

Woodcock, Rose (2011) ‘Predatory vision: 3D imaging and the transformation of screen-space’, in Text, 11. Pp. 1-10,

Woods, Andrew J. (2013) ‘3D or 3-D: a study of terminology, usage and style’ in European Science Editing 39(3), pp 59-62

Zettl, Herber (2012) ‘Why 3D may  Work Occasionally: Case Reopened’ in  Visual
Communication Quarterly, 19:3, pp.148-159.

Zone, Ray (2005) 3-D Filmmakers  Conversations With Creators Of Stereoscopic Motion Pictures, Oxford: The Scarecrow Press. ISBN: 0810854376

Zone, Ray (2007) ‘Ghosts in relief: stereoscopic projection, magic lanterns and the movies’. The Magic Lantern Gazette, 19:1, pp.17-24.

Zone, Ray (2007) Stereoscopic Cinema and the Origins of 3-D Film, Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN: 0813124611

Zone, Ray (2012) 3D revolution: the history of modern stereoscopic cinema, Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN: 0813136113

Zone, Ray (2012) 3-DIY: stereoscopic moviemaking on an indie budget, Boston: Focal Press. ISBN: 0240817079

Zone, Ray (2013) ‘Avant-3D: Notes on the Experimental Stereoscopic Cinema and its Relation to Other Arts’ in Public, 47, pp.72-82

Zwick, Jim (1999) ‘The ‘Stereoscopic’ war of 1899′ in Diokno, Maria Serena I.(ed.) Voices and Scenes of the Past: The Philippine-American War Retold. Quezon City, Philippines: Jose W. Diokno Foundation, pp.1-5. ISBN: 9879719108863

Zwick, Jim and Kenning, Thomas (2018) Stereoscopic visions of war and empire


Babbitts, Judith (1987) “To see is to know”: stereographs educate Americans about East Asia, 1890-1940, unpublished thesis (PhD), Yale University.

Batzli, Samuel A. (1997) The visual voice: “Armchair tourism”, cultural authority and the depiction of the United States in Twentieth-century stereographs, unpublished thesis (PhD), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Camfield, Nick (2014 ) 3DTV Year One: orce, Resistance, and MediaTechnology, unpublished thesis (PhD), University of Nottingham

Davis, Melody D. (2004) Doubling the vision: women and narrative stereography: the United States, 1870-1910, unpublished thesis (PhD), City University of New York.

Kempler, Susan (1991) America ‘discovers’ the world: James Ricalton’s ‘Travels on next to nothing’, 1844-1929, unpublished thesis (PhD), State University of New Jersey.

Layer, Harold A. (1970) Stereoscopy: an analysis of its history and its import to education and the communication process, unpublished thesis (D.Ed.), Indiana University.

Morton, Marilyn Faye (1998) The social stereoscope: issues in American cultural history, unpublished thesis (PhD), Emory University.

Rayfield, Beth (2004) ‘Her apparent admiration and the intensity of her gaze’: race, class and gender and the stereoscopic viewing experience, unpublished thesis (PhD), University of California at Irvine.

Salvesen, Britt (1997) Selling sight: stereoscopy in mid-Victorian Britain, unpublished thesis (PhD),  University of Chicago,

Schiavo, Laura Burd (2003) “A collection of endless extent and beauty”: stereographs, vision, taste and the American middle class, 1850-1880,  unpublished thesis (PhD)George Washington University, Columbian College of Arts and Sciences

Sexton, Nanette M. (1982) Carleton E. Watkins: pioneer California photographer (1829-1916): a study in the evolution of photographic style, during the first decade of wet plate photography, unpublished PhD thesis Harvard University.

Weetch, Owen (2013) Spectacle, Narrative, and Meaning Construction in Contemporary 3D Cinema, unpublished PhD thesis University of Warwick.

Whitney, Alison Patricia (2005) The eye of Daedalus: a history and theory of IMAX cinema. unpublished PhD thesis University of Chicago.


Holbrook, Morris B. (1997) ‘Three-dimensional stereographic visual displays in marketing and consumer research’ in Academy of Marketing Science Review, 1997: 1

Holbrook, Morris B. (1997) ‘Stereographic visual displays and the three-dimensional communication of findings in marketing research’ in Journal of Marketing Research, 34, pp.526-536.

Holbrook, Morris B. (1998) ‘Marketing applications of three-dimensional stereography’ in Marketing Letters,9:1, pp.51-64.

Holbrook, Morris B. (1998) ‘Stereo 3D representations in postmodern marketing research’ in Marketing Intelligence and Planning,16:5, pp.298-310.

Holbrook, Morris B. and Kuwahara, Takeo (1998) ‘Collective stereographic photo essays: an integrated approach to probing consumption experiences in depth’ in International Journal of Research in Marketing, 15, pp.201-221.

Holbrook, Morris B. and Kuwahara, Takeo (1999) ‘Probing explorations, deep displays, Virtual Reality, and profound insights: the four faces of stereographic three-dimensional images in marketing and consumer research’ in Advances in Consumer Research, 26, pp.240-250.

Holbrook, Morris B., Stephens, Debra Lynn, Day, Ellen, Holbrook, Sarah M. and Strazar, Gregor (2001) ‘A collective stereographic photo essay on key aspects of animal companionship: the truth about dogs and cats’ in Academy of Marketing Science Review, 2001:1

Holbrook, Morris B. and Schindler, Robert M. (2003) ‘Nostalgic bonding: exploring the role of nostalgia in the consumption experience’ in Journal of Consumer Behaviour,3:2, pp.107-127.

Yim, Mark Yi-Cheon, Cicchirillo, Vincent J. and Drumwright, Minette E. (2012) ‘The impact of stereoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) advertising: the role of presence in enhancing advertising effectiveness’, in Journal of Advertising, 41:2, pp.113-128.