Stereoscopic Media

Stereoscopic Moving Images

Acland, Charles (201o) ‘Avatar as Technological Tentpole’ in Flow, Jan 2010.

Adler, Dan, Marchessault, Janine and Obradovic, Sanja, (eds.) (2014) 3D cinema and beyond. Bristol:Intellect Press. ISBN: 9781783200399

Allison, Robert S., Laurie M. Wilcox and Ali Kazimi (2013) ‘Perceptual Artefacts, Suspension of Disbelief and Realism in Stereoscopic 3D Film’ in Public, 47, pp.149-160

Anders-Stern, Gunther (1954) ‘3D film and cyclopic effect’. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 15:2, pp.295-298

Asselin, Olivier and Louis Auger Gosselin (2013) ‘This Side of Paradise: Immersion and Emersion in S3D and AR’, in Public, 47, pp.132-141

Arthur, Paul (1996) ‘In the realm of the senses: IMAX 3-D and the myth of total cinema’. Film Comment, 32:1, pp.78-81.

Atkinson, Sarah (2011) ‘Stereoscopic-3D Storytelling: rethinking the conventions, grammar and aesthetics of a new medium’ in Journal of Media Practice, 12:2, pp.139-156.

Aubusson, Mathieu and Teulade, Vincent (2009) Eyes wide open: 3D tipping points loom  Paris: PricewaterhouseCoopers.

Autodesk (2008) Stereoscopic filmmaking whitepaper: The business and technology of stereoscopic filmmaking. Autodesk [online], available:

Aylsworth, Wendy L., Postley, Howard J., Sandrew, Barry B., Dobrin, Bruce E. and Husak, Walt (2013) ‘Stereographic digital cinema: production and exhibition techniques in 2012’, in Proceedings of the IEEE, 101:1, pp.169-189.

Banks, Martin S., Read, Jenny. C. A., Allison, Robert S. and Watt, Simon J. (2012) ‘Stereoscopy and the human visual system’. SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal, 121:4, pp.24-43.

Bantjes, Rod (2014) ‘Hybrid Projection, Machinic Exhibition and the Eighteenth-Century Critique of Vision’. Art History, 37:5, pp.912-939.

Bazin, André (2014) The 3D Revolution Did Not Take Place in Andrew, Dudley, (ed.) Andre Bazin’s New Media.  Oakland, Ca: University of California Press. pp.258-264

Bazin, André (2014) ‘Cinema in 3D and Color: Amazing!’ in Andrew, Dudley, (ed.) Andre Bazin’s New Media. Oakland, Ca: University of California Press, pp.232-234.

Bazin, André (2014) The House of Wax: Scare Me … in Depth! in Andrew, Dudley, (ed.) Andre Bazin’s New Media.Oakland, Ca: University of California Press. pp.251-253

Bazin, André (2014) ‘A New Stage in the Process: Math Equations for 3D’ in Andrew, Dudley, (ed.) Andre Bazin’s New Media. Oakland, Ca: University of California Press, pp.235-242.

Bazin, André (2014) The Real Crime on La Rue Morgue: They Assassinated a Dimension! in Andrew, Dudley, (ed.) Andre Bazin’s New Media. Oakland, Ca:University of California Press. pp.254-257,

Bazin, André (2014) The Return of Metroscopix in Andrew, Dudley, (ed.), Andre Bazin’s New Media. Oakland, Ca: University of California Press. pp.248-250.

Bazin, André (2014) ‘Will a War in Three Dimensions Take Place?’ in Andrew, Dudley, (ed.), Andre Bazin’s New Media. Oakland, Ca: University of California Press, pp.243-247.

Belisle, Brooke (2013) ‘The Dimensional Image: Overlaps in Stereoscopic, Cinematic, and Digital Depth’, Film Criticism, 37/38:3/1, pp.117-137.

Belisle, Brooke (2014) ‘Depth readings: Ken Jacobs’s digital, stereographic films’. Cinema Journal, 53:2, pp.1-26.

Belton, John (2012) ‘Digital 3D Cinema: Digital Cinema’s Missing Novelty Phase’ in Film History: An International Journal 24.2, pp.187-195.

Benna, Shannon. 2018. “Systems and Practices to Produce Stereoscopic Space on Screen.” In Image – Action – Space: Situating the Screen in Visual Practice, edited by Luisa Feiersinger, Kathrin Friedrich, and Moritz Queisner, 133–46. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter.

Bennet, Bruce (2013) ‘The normativity of 3D:  cinematic journeys, “imperial visuality” and unchained cameras’ in Jump Cut, 55, np.

Benson-Allott, Caetlin (2013) ‘Old Tropes in New Dimensions: Stereoscopy and Franchise Spectatorship’, Film Criticism, 37/38:3/1, pp.12-29.

Benson-Allott, Caetlin (2016) ‘The CHORA Line: RealD Incorporated’ in Post-Cinema: Theorizing 21st-Century Film, ed. by Shane Denison and Julia Leyda (Falmer: REFRAME Books, 2016) ISBN:  978-0-9931996-2-2

Bjørner, Thomas, Magnusson, Andreas and Nielsen, Robin Pascal (2016) ‘How to Describe and Measure Obstacles of Narrative Immersion in a Film?’. Nordicom Review, 37:1, pp.1-17.

Block, Alexis (2009) ‘Put on your glasses: 3D in two generations’ in Animatrix: a journal of the UCLA Animation Workshop, 17, pp.15-24

Blundell, Barry G. (2011) 3D Displays and Spatial Interaction, Walker & Wood Limited. ISBN: 9780473177010

Bluestone, George (1956) ‘In defense of 3-D’. The Sewanee Review, 64:4, pp.683-689.

Bombeke, Klaas, Van Looy, Jan, Szmalec, Arnaud and Duyck, Wouter (2013) ‘Leaving the third dimension: no measurable evidence for cognitive aftereffects of stereoscopic 3D movies’.  Journal of the Society for Information Display, 21:4, pp.159-166,

Bordwell, David (2012) Dial M for Murder: Hitchcock frets not at his narrow room, Observations on Film Art [online], 7th September

Bordwell, David (2014) ‘Adieu au Langage: 2 + 2 x 3D’, Observations on Film Art, 7 September 2014,

Böser, Ursula, Nic Craith, Máiréad and Devasundaram, Ashvin Immanuel (2017) ‘The representation of ‘building events’ in Wim Wenders’ Cathedrals of Culture’, Studies in Documentary Film, 11:1, pp.1-15,

Bowles, Kate (2011) ‘‘Society with spectacles’: Cultural memory, business risk and the revival of 3D’, Media International Australia, 139, pp.103-112.

Brown, Simon (2013) ‘From Novelty to Normal: 3DTV as Special Effect’, Critical Studies in Television: An International Journal of Television Studies, 8:3, pp.33-46,

Brown, William (2012) ‘Avatar: Stereoscopic Cinema, Gaseous Perception and Darkness’ in Animation: an Interdisciplinary Journal, pp.259-271.

Burnett, Ron (2013) ‘Transitions, Images and Stereoscopic 3D Cinema’ in Public, 47, pp.200-213

Candusso, Damian (2016) ‘Digital 3D and the contemporary soundtrack: competing cinema spaces’, The New Soundtrack, 6:1, pp.63-76

Casetti, Francesco and Antonio Somaini (2013) ‘The conflict between high definition and low definition in contemporary cinema’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.415-422

Chapman, Owen and Alison Reiko Loader (2013) ‘Of Motors, Martians and Jazz Age Cuties: The Stereoscopic Inventions of Laurens Hammond’ in Public, 47, pp.110-121

Christie, Ian (2011) ‘Clash of the Wonderlands: 3D Cinema’ in Sight and Sound, Nov 2011. Available online at:

Christie, Ian (2014) ‘Will the 3D Revolution happen? A brief perspective on the long history of stereoscopy (with special thanks to Eisenstein and Bazin)’ in Oever, Annie van den, ed., Technē/Technology: researching cinema and media technologies: their development, use, and impact. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp.115-135. ISBN: 9789089645715

Clement, Jennifer and Long, Christian B. (2012) ‘Hugo, redemption and the cinema of attractions, or, The adaptation of Hugo Cabret’. Senses of Cinema, 63

Clover, Joshua (2010) ‘The Struggle for Space’ in Film Quarterly, 63:3, pp.6-7.

Cook, Pam (2013) Within and without: The Great Gatsby’s 3D experience, Fashion into Film [online],

Criado, Enrique (2008) ‘Original and Creative Stereoscopic Film Making’, in Woods, Andrew J., Holliman, Nicolas S. and Merritt, John O., eds., Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XIX, 68030 article 68030U

Cuenca, Celia (2018) ‘The “animated polystereoscope” of Francisco Dalmau introducing stereo photography in Barcelona through optical shows (1853-1863)’. International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 2:2, pp.54-59

DeJohn, Matthew (n.d.) How to critique 3D

DeSouza, Clyde (2012) Think in 3D, CreateSpace ISBN 1470150778

Devernay, Frédéric and Beardsley, Paul. (2010) ‘Stereoscopic Cinema.’ In Ronfard, Remi and Taubin, Gabriel (eds.)Image and Geometry Processing for 3-D Cinematography, (Geometry and Computing, 5) Springer: Berlin,  Heidelberg, pp.11-51 ISBN: 9783642123924.   

Drößler, Stefan (2011) ‘ A Short History of 3D Films’. NFC Newsletter (The National Museum of Modern Art/The National Film Center, Tokyo):3 and 4, pp.11-16 (each issue).

Duerfahrd, Lance (2013) ‘For Your Glasses Only: The Stewardesses and Sex in Three Dimensions’ in Public, 47, pp.161-173

Duffy, Michael S. (2009) ‘Stereoscopic Cinema and the Origins of 3-D Film, 1838-1952 by Ray Zone [Review]’. Moving Image, 9:2, pp.178-181.

Eisenstein, Sergei M. (1949) ‘On stereoscopic cinema’ in Penguin Film Review, No.8, January, pp.35-45.

Eisenstein, Sergei (2013) ‘On Stereoscopic Cinema (1947)’ in Public, 47, pp.20-59

Elcott, Noam M. (2016) ‘The Phantasmagoric Dispositif: An Assembly of Bodies and Images in real Time and Space’, Grey Room, 62

Ellenbogen, Josh (2010) ‘The Eye of the Sun and the Eye of God’, Visual Resources, 26:2, pp.113-130

Elsaesser, Thomas (2010) ‘The dimension of depth and objects rushing towards us.  Or: The Tail that wags the dog: a discourse on digital 3-D cinema’. eDIT Filmmaker’s Magazine, 1 available:

Elsaesser, Thomas (2011) ‘James Cameron’s Avatar: Access for all’ in New Review of Film and Television Studies, 9:3, pp. 247-264.

Elsaesser, Thomas (2012) ‘The “Return” of 3-D: On Some of the Logics and Genealogies of the Image in the Twenty-First Century’ in Critical Inquiry, 39:2, pp.217-246

Elsaesser, Thomas (2013) ‘Critical Response II: Response to Miriam Ross’, Critical Inquiry, 39:4, pp.878-883.

Engle, Rob (2008) ‘Beowulf 3D: a case study’. Proceedings of the SPIE 6803.

Engber, Daniel (2015) ‘The misunderstanding of 3-D’. The New Yorker, 2nd June

Engle, Rob and Lipton, Lenny (2014) ‘Stereoscopic 3D’ in Okun, Jeffery A. and Zwerman, Susan, eds., The Visual Effects Society handbook of visual effects, 2nd ed.  Abingdon: Focal Press, pp.447-541. ISBN: 97802408125182

Enyedi, Delia (2016) ‘3D Attractions: Recycling the Monomyth in Post-Cinema.’ Ekphrasis. Images, Cinema, Theory, Media, 16:2: pp.73–83.

Feiersinger, Luisa (2016) ‘Producing Illusions in Oz the Great and Powerful: How the stereoscopic movie narrates its medium’s descent and thereby realizes its aesthetic potential’, in Flores, Victor, ed., Stereo and Immersive Media Proceedings 2015, Lisbon, 105-126.

Feiersinger, Luisa. 2018. “Spatial Narration. Film Scenography Using Stereoscopic Technology.” In Image – Action – Space: Situating the Screen in Visual Practice, edited by Luisa Feiersinger, Kathrin Friedrich, and Moritz Queisner, 69–78. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter.

Fisher, Kevin (2014) ‘The ecstatic Gestalt in Werner Herzog’s Cave of Forgotten Dreams‘. Refractory: a Journal of Entertainment Media, 24 

Fitter, Bruce (2013) ‘The Relationship of Pixel Parallax to Audience Emotional Response’, in 2013 International Conference on 3D Imaging, Liege, IEEE

Flores, Teresa Mendes (2015) ‘Stereoscopy, film and the time image. An improbable encounter: Paz dos Reis and Chris Marker’s photographic films.’ in Medeiros, Margarida, Flores, Teresa Mendes and Leal, Joana Cunha, eds.,Photography and cinema: Fifty years of Chris Marker’s La Jetée. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp.123-170. ISBN: 9781443872010

Flores, Victor (2013) ‘Stereo visual culture: Between the documentary and entertainment’. The International Journal of the Image, 3:4, pp.9-19.

Flores, Victor (2016) ‘The Animation of the Photographic: Stereoscopy and Cinema. The Experiments of Aurélio Da Paz Dos Reis’ in Early Popular Visual Culture, 14:1, pp.87–106

Flueckiger, Barbara (2012) ‘Aesthetics of Stereoscopic Cinema’ in  Projections, 6:1, pp. 101-122

Freeland, Cynthia (2012) ‘On being stereoblind in an era of 3D movies’.  Essays in Philosophy, 13:2, pp.550-576,

Furmanek, Bob and Kintz , Greg (n.d.) ‘An in-depth look at Creature from the black lagoon‘.

Furmanek, Bob and Kintz , Greg (n.d.) ‘An in-depth look at Dial M for Murder‘.

Furmanek, Bob and Kintz , Greg (n.d.) ‘An in-depth look at House of Wax‘.

Furmanek, Bob and Theakston, Jack (n.d.) ‘The 3-D release of Hondo‘.

Gadassik, Alla (2013) ‘Anticipation of Contact: Pina 3D and Stereoscopic Cinematography’ in Public, 47, pp.174-185

“Gardner, Brian (2009) ‘Perception and the art of 3D storytelling’,
Creative Cow, pp.8-15

Griffiths, Alison (2013) ‘Sensual Vision : 3-D, Medieval Art, and the Cinematic Imaginary’, Film Criticism, 37/38:3/1,pp. 60-86.

Gurevitch, Leon (2012) ‘The Birth of a Stereoscopic Nation: Hollywood, Digital Empire and the Cybernetic Attraction’ in Animation: an interdisciplinary journal, 7: 3, pp.239-258.

Gurevitch, Leon (2013) ‘The stereoscopic attraction: Three-dimensional imaging and the spectacular’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.396-405 10.1177/1354856513494175

Gurevitch, Leon and Miriam Ross (2013) ‘Stereoscopic Media: Scholarship Beyond Booms and Bust’ in Public, 47, pp.72-82

Hall, Sheldon (2004) ‘Dial M for Murder’ in Film History, 16:3, pp.243-255

Harden, Fred (1983) ‘Stereoscopic cinema’, Cinema Papers, 43, pp.134-139.

Hawkins, Richard C. (1953) ‘Perspective on “3-D”‘ in The Quarterly of Film, Radio and Television,7:4, pp.325-334.

Hayes, R. M. (1989) 3-D Movies: A History and Filmography of Stereoscopic Cinema, London: St James Press ISBN 0786405783

Heffernan, Kevin (2004) Ghouls, gimmicks and gold: horror films and the American movie business, 1953-1968. Durham, NC:Duke University Press. ISBN: 9780822332152/9780822332022

Higgins, S. (2012) ‘3D in Depth: Coraline, Hugo, and a Sustainable Aesthetic’ in  Film History: An International Journal24:2, 196-209.

Holmberg, Jan (2003) ‘Ideals of immersion in early cinema’. Cinémas : revue d’études cinématographiques / Cinémas: Journal of Film Studies, 14:1, pp.129-147.

Huhtamo, Erkki (2003 ) ‘Media Art in the Third Dimension: Stereoscopic Imaging and Contemporary Art’ in Shaw, Jeffrey  and Weibel, Peter, eds., Future Cinema: the Cinematic Imaginary after film. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, pp.466-473. ISBN: 9780262692861

Huhtamo, Erkki (2006) ‘The Pleasures of the Peephole: An Archaeological Exploration of Peep Media’ in Kluitenberg, Eric, ed., The Book of Imaginary Media: Excavating the Dream of the Ultimate Communication Medium. Amsterdam / Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, pp.74-155. ISBN: 9789056625399

Huhtamo, Erkki (2013) ‘ Illusion and Its Reverse: About Artistic Explorations of Stereoscopic 3D’ in Kracke, Bernd and Ries, Marc, ed., Expanded Narration. Das Neue Erzählen. B3 Biennale Des Bewegten Bildes. Frankfurt am Main: Biennale des Bewegten Bildes/Transcript Verlag, pp.129-141. ISBN: 9783837626520

Hummel, Rob (2008) ‘3-D cinematography’.  American Cinematographer, (April), pp.52-63.

Jackman, Anna Hamilton (2015) ‘3D cinema: immersive media technology’. Geojournal,

Jayakumar, Tulsi (2015) ‘Sholay 3D: Recreating the Magic?’. South Asian Journal of Management, 22:4, pp.164-189.

Ji, Qiaho and Lee, Young Sun (2014) ‘Genre matters: a comparative study on the entertainment effects of 3D in cinematic contexts’. 3D Research, 5:15, pp.1-13,

Ji, Qiaho, Tanca, Jessica and Janicke, Sophie (2013) ‘Does 3D increase the enjoyment experience? A comparative experiment on the psychological effects of 3D’. 3D Research, 4:4, pp.1-9,

Jockenhövel, Jesko (2011) ‘What is it if it’s not real? It’s genre: early color film and digital 3D’, Cinemascope: independent film journal, 7(15) (14 pages)

Jockenhövel, Jesko (2016) ‘A three-dimensional checkerboard: the long take in 3D films’ in Spöhrer, Markus, ed., Die ästhetisch-narrativen Dimensionen des 3D-Films: Neue Perspektiven zur StereoskopieWiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien, pp.55-69. ISBN: 9783658094218

Johnson, Colin (2014) ‘Science in three dimensions: Werner Herzog’s Cave of Forgotten Dreams‘. The Modern Language Review, 109:4, pp.915-930.

Johnston, Keith M. (2008) ‘”Three Times as Thrilling!”: The Lost History of 3-D Trailer Production, 1953-54’, Journal of Popular Film and Television, 36:3, pp.150 – 160. Also available at

Johnston, Keith M. (2011) ‘Now is the time (to put on your glasses): 3-D film exhibition in Britain, 1951-55’, Film History, 23, pp.93-103 Also available at UEA:

Johnston, Keith M. (2012) ‘A technician’s dream? The critical reception of 3-D films in Britain.’ in Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television,32:2, pp.245-265. Also available at UEA

Johnston, Keith M. (2013) ‘’Pop-out footballers’, pop concerts and popular films: The past, present and future of three-dimensional television’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.438-445 Also available at UEA:

Johnston, Keith M. (2015) ‘3D UK? 3D history and the absent British pioneers’. Open Library of Humanities [online], 1:1, pp.1-25,

Johnston, Keith M. (2016) ‘An unlimited field for experiment: Britain’s stereoscopic landscapes’ in Newland, Peter (ed.) British rural landscapes on film. Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp. 71-85 ISBN: 9780719091575

Johnston, Sean F. (2014) ‘The cultural landscape of three-dimensional imaging.’ in Richardson, Martin,(ed.)Techniques and Principles in Three-Dimensional Imaging: An Introductory Approach. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, pp.212-232. ISBN: 9781466649323

Jolly, Stephen, Armstrong, Mike and Salmon, Richard (2009) The challenges of three-dimensional television. London: British Broadcasting Corporation.

Jones, Nick (2014) ”There never really is a stereoscopic image’: a closer look at 3D media’ in New Review of Film and Television Studies, online edition, pp.1-19

Jones, Nick (2015) “Variation within Stability: Digital 3D and Film Style” in Cinema Journal, 55, pp.52–73

Jones, Nick (2016), ‘Expanding the Esper: Virtualised Spaces of Surveillance in Sf Film’ in Science Fiction Film & Television, 9:1, pp.1–23

Jones, Nick (2018) ‘The expansive and proximate scales of immersive media’. International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 2:2, pp.36-49

Jones, Nick (2019) Spaces Mapped and Monstrous: Digital 3D Cinema and Visual Culture. Columbia University Press. ISBN: 9780231194235

Jones, Nick (2020) There’s More to 3D Than Meets the Eye, Columbia University Press Blog

Karajeh, Huda, Maqableh, Mahmoud and Masa’deh, Ra’ed (2014) ‘A review on stereoscopic 3D: Home entertainment for the twenty-first century’. 3D Research, 5:4, pp.26-34.

Kehr, Dave (2010) ‘3-D or not 3-D: from Bwana Devil to Avatar: how far has the technology come and how much further must it go?’ in Film Comment, 46:1, pp.60-67

Kerbel, Michael (1980) ‘3-D or not 3-D’ in Film Comment, 16:6, pp.11-20

Kermode, Mark (2011) ‘The inevitable decline of 3-D’ in The Good, the Bad and the Multiplex: what’s wrong with modern movies?,London: Random House, pp.121-166.  ISBN: 9781847946034

Khoo, Olivia (2014) ‘Bait 3D and the Singapore – Australia co-production agreement: from content to creativity through stereoscopic technology’. Transnational Cinemas, 5:1, pp.1-13

Kim, Jihoon (2013) ‘Introduction: Three dimensionality as a heuristic device’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.391-395

Kiss, Miklos (2016) ‘3D imaging technology’s narrative appropriation in cinema’ in Fossati, Giovanna and Oever, Annie van den, eds., Exposing the film apparatus: the film archive as a research laboratory. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp.312-321. ISBN: 9789089647184

Kitsopanidou, Kira (2015) ‘Marketing the “Avatar revolution, or how to sell digital technology to exhibitors’ in Mingant, Nolwenn, Tirtaine, Cecilia and Augros, Joel, eds., Film marketing into the twenty-first century. London: Palgrave/BFI, pp.163-173. ISBN: 9781844578382

Klinger, Barbara (2012) ‘Cave of Forgotten Dream: Mediation on 3D’ in Film Quarterly, 65:3, pp.38-43

Klinger, Barbara (2013) ‘Beyond Cheap Thrills: 3D Cinema Today, the Parallax Debates and the “Pop-Out” in Public, 47, pp.186-199

Klinger, Barbara (2013) ‘Three-dimensional cinema: The new normal’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.423-431

Knapp, Ann-Kristin and Hennig-Thurau, Thorsten (2015) ‘Does 3D Make Sense for Hollywood? The Economic Implications of Adding a Third Dimension to Hedonic Media Products’. Journal of Media Economics, 28:2, pp.100-118,

Knight, Julia and Alexis Weedon (2013) ‘Social media and debates in 3D cinema’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.389-90

Koepnick, Lutz (2013) Herzog’s Cave: On Cinema’s Unclaimed Pasts and Forgotten Futures, The Germanic Review: Literature, Culture, Theory, 88:3, pp. 271-285

Koszarski, Richard (2000) ‘A Lion in Your Lap – A Lover in Your Arms: Arch Oboler and “Bwana Devil”’ in Film History 12:1, pp.17-28.

Kroon, Richard (2012) 3D A-to-Z: An encyclopedia dictionary, London:McFarland ISBN 0786468246

Kuroki, Yoshihiko (2012) ‘Improvement of 3D visual image quality by using high frame rate’. Journal of the Society for Information Display, 20:10, pp.566-574,

Li, Zeng (2019) ‘From affective space to performative depth: Spatial aesthetics in 3-D wuxia films Flying Swords of Dragon Gate (2010) and Sword Master (2016)’, Asian Cinema, 30:1, pp.73-90

Limbacher, James L (1968) Four aspects of the film: a history of the development of color, sound, 3-D and widescreen films and their contribution to the art of the motion picture. New York: Brussel and Brussel. ISBN:

Lindstrom, Richard (2000) ‘”They all believe they are undiscovered Mary Pickfords”: workers photography and scientific management’. Technology and Culture, 41:4, pp.725-751.

Lippit, Akira Mizuta (1999) ‘Three Phantasies of Cinema – Reproduction, Mimesis, Annihilation’ in Paragraph, 22:3, pp. 213-227.

Lipton, Lenny (1982) Foundations of the Stereoscopic Cinema, New York:Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Lipton, Lenny, Phillips, Sean, Engle, Rob, Townsend, Christopher, Olum, Jeff, Gaffney, Brian, Block, Bruce and McNally, Philip “Captain 3D” (2010) ‘Stereoscopic 3D’ in Okun, Jeffery A. and Zwerman, Susan, eds., The Visual Effects Society handbook of visual effects. Abingdon: Elsevier, pp.387-464. ISBN:

Liu, Yong (2016) ‘From ‘Dimensional Effects’ to Stereoscopic Hyperrealism: The Transformation of Digital 3D Cinematic Aesthetics’, in ‘Sea Change: Transforming Industries, Screens, Texts’ Conference of the Screen Studies Association of Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand (SSAAANZ) organised by Victoria University of Wellington, 23-25 November 2016. Wellington, New Zealand,

Liu, Yong (2018) 3D cinematic aesthetics and storytelling. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN: 9783319727417

Loader, Alison Reiko (2014) ‘Convergence and collaboration in the Cold: Norman Mclaren and 1950s stereoscopic animation at the National Film Board of Canada’. Animation Journal, pp.4-26.

Loew, Katharina (2013) ‘Tangible Specters : 3-D Cinema in the 1910s’, Film Criticism, 37/38:3/1, pp.87-116.

Madžoski, Vesna (2011) ‘Avatar Cat People: The Others in 3D’, Cinemascope: independent film journal, 7:15

Macgowan, Kenneth (1956) ‘The Screen’s “New Look”: Wider and Deeper’ in The Quarterly of Film, Radio and Television, 11:2, pp.109-130.

Manovich, Lev (1993) ‘The Mapping of Space: Perspective, Radar, and 3-D Computer Graphics’. Available online at:

Maréchal, G. and Bennett, Laura (2016) ‘The Animated Stereoscopic Portrait’, Art in Translation, 8:1, pp.41-46, DOI:10.1080/17561310.2016.1144280

Martins, José Manuel (2014) ‘‘Crows’ vs. ‘Avatar,’ or: 3D vs. Total-Dimension Immersion’, Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Film and Media Studies, 8:1

Mathias, Nikita (2016) ‘Between immersion and media reflexivity: Virtual travel media in the 19th Century’, International Journal of Film and Media Arts, 1:2, pp.22-33.

Mayorov, Nikolai (2012) ‘A first in cinema… stereoscopic films in Russia and the Soviet Union’ in Studies in Russian and Soviet Cinema, 6:2 pp. 217-239.

McConnell, Frank D. (1973) ‘Song of innocence: The Creature from the Black Lagoon‘. Journal of Popular Film, 2:1, pp.15-28.

McLaren, Norman (1951) ‘Stereographic animation: the synthesis of stereoscopic depth from flat drawings and art work’. SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal, 57, pp.513-519.

Mehrabov, Ilkin (2015) ‘Immersive spectatorship and the future of stereoscopic 3DTV’. VIEW Journal of European Television History and Culture, 4:7, pp.99-109.

Mendes Flores, Teresa (2015) ‘Stereoscopy, film and the time image: An improbable encounter: Paz dos Reis and Chris Marker’s photographic films.’ in Medeiros, Margarida, Flores, Teresa Mendes and Leal, Joana Cunha (eds.) Photography and cinema: Fifty years of Chris Marker’s La Jetée. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp.123-170. ISBN: 9781443872010

Mendiburu, Bernard (2009) ‘Fundamentals of stereoscopic imaging’. Digital Cinema Summit, NAB, Las Vegas, April 18 2009‎

Michelle, C. et al. (2015) ‘The Hobbit hyperreality paradox: Polarization among audiences for a 3D high frame rate film’ in Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies.

Michelle, Carolyn, Davis, Charles H., Hight, Craig and Hardy, Ann L. (2015) ‘The Hobbit hyperreality paradox: Polarization among audiences for a 3D high frame rate film’. Convergence: the International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies,

Michelle, Carolyn, Davis, Charles H., Hardy, Ann L. and Hight, Craig (2017) ‘Pioneering Cinematic Technologies and The Hobbit’s Hyperreality Paradox.’ in Michelle, Carolyn and Davis, Charles H., eds., Fans, Blockbusterisation, and the Transformation of Cinematic Desire: global receptions of The Hobbit film triology. London: Palgrave, pp.159-184. ISBN: 9781137596154

Montagu, Ivor (1950) The Third Dimension: Film of the Future? In Manvell, Roger (ed.) The Cinema 1950.  Pelican Books, p. 132-139.

Morgan, Hal and Symmes, Dan (1982) Amazing 3-D, London: Vermilion ISBN: 0316582832/0316582840

Moulten Carter (2013) ‘The Future is a Fairground: Attraction and Absorption in 3D Cinema’ in CineAction, 89, pp.4-13.

Mitchell, Rick (2004) ‘The Tragedy of 3-D Cinema’ in Film History, 16, pp.208-215.

Neumann, Mark (2001) ‘Emigrating to New York in 3-D: stereoscopic vision in IMAX’s cinematic city’ in Shiel, Mark and Fitzmaurice, Tony, eds., Cinema and the city: film and urban societies in a global context. Oxford: Blackwell, pp.109-122. ISBN: 9780631222446

Norling, John A (1939) ‘Three dimensional motion picture’. SMPTE Motion Imaging Journal, 33, pp.613-634.

Norling, John A. (1953) ‘The Stereoscopic art – a reprint.’  Journal of the SMPTE, 60, pp.268-308

Palmer, Gary (2004) ‘3-D Filmography’ in Film History, 16:3, pp.256-276.

Parmeggiani, Paolo (2017) ‘3D negative space beyond stereoscopy: Immersion into the urban space of Venice’, International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 1:2, pp.44-58. URL

Paul, William (2004) ‘Breaking the Fourth Wall: ‘Belascoism’, Modernism and a 3-D Kiss Me Kate’ in Film History, 16:3, pp.229-242.

Paul, William (1993) ‘The Aesthetics of Emergence’ in Film History, 5:3, pp.321-355.

Pierson, Ryan (2012) ‘Méliès in stereopsis’. The Funambulist  DOI:

Pierson, Michele (2017) ‘Where Shadow Play Is Cinema: The Exhibition and Critical Reception of Ken Jacobs’s Shadow Plays in the 1960s and 1970s’, Film History, 29:3, pp.25, DOI: 10.2979/filmhistory.29.3.02

Pölönen, Monika, Salmimaa, Marja, Takatalo, Jari M. and Häkkinen, Jukka P. (2012) ‘Subjective experiences of watching stereoscopic Avatar and U2 3D in a cinema’. Journal of Electronic Imaging, 21:1

Popov, Vladimir Ilyich (2015) ‘3D Cinematography in the Cinema Art of Kazakhstan: Technological, Film Studying and Social Aspects’. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 12:11, pp.830-835.’

Price, C. Aaron, Lee, Hee-Sun, Subbarao, Mark, Kasal, Evan and Aguilera, Julieta (2015) ‘Comparing Short- and Long-Term Learning Effects Between Stereoscopic and Two-Dimensional Film at a Planetarium’, Science Education, 99:6, pp.1118-1142,

Prince, Stephen (2012) ‘Immersive aesthetics’ in Digital visual effects in cinema: the seduction of reality. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press,  pp.183-220. ISBN: 978-0813551869

Purse, Lisa (2013) ‘The Digital in Three Dimensions’ in Purse, Lisa, Digital Imaging in Popular Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press: 129-151. ISBN: 0748646906

Quesnel, Denise, Lantin, Maria, Goldman, Alan and Arden, Sean (2013) High Frame Rate (HFR) white paper. Vancouver: S3D Centre.

Quigley, Martin (1953) New screen techniques. New York:Quigley Publishing Company.

Raposo, Sara (2016) ‘Stereoscopic therapy: Fun or remedy?’, International Journal of Film and Media Arts, 1:2, pp.48-56.

Raven, Lucy (2011) ‘The Second Eye’, MIT Press Journals, 138.1, pp133-139

Reed, Arden (2017) Slow art: the experience of looking, sacred images to James Turrell. Oakland, California: University of California Press. ISBN: 9780520285507

Reeve, Simon and Flock, Jason (2010) ‘Basic principles of stereoscopic 3D’.

Rivero, Juan-Antonio Fernandez (2016) ‘British stereo photographers in Spain: Frank M. Good’, International Journal of Film and Media Arts, 1:2, pp.76-88.

Rivero, Juan Antonio Fernández and Ballesteros, María Teresa García (2018) ‘Spanish stereoscopic commercial photography in the 20th century: “El Turismo Práctico” and “Rellev”’. International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 2:2, pp.4-27

Rizov, Vadim (2014) ‘Goodbye to 3-D rules’. Filmmaker: The Magazine of Independent Film, 23(1), 8-9.

Rogers, Ariel (2013) ‘Points of convergence: the conceptualizing the appeal of 3D cinema then and now (Chapter 5)’ in Rogers, Ariel, ed., Cinematic appeals: the experience of new movie technologies. New York: Columbia University Press, pp.179-226. ISBN: 9780231159173

Ronfard, Rémi  and Gabriel Taubin (eds) Image and Geometry Processing for 3-D Cinematography, London: Springer, pp.11-52 ISBN 3642123910

Rooney, Brendan, Ciarán Benson, and Eilis Hennessy (2012) ‘The Apparent Reality of Movies and Emotional Arousal: A Study Using Physiological and Self-report Measures,’ in Poetics 40: 5, pp. 405–422,

Rooney, Brendan and Hennessey, Ellis (2013) ‘Actually in the cinema: a field study comparing real 3D and 2D movie patrons’ attention, emotion and film satisfaction’.  Media Psychology, 16:4, pp.441-460,

Ross, Miriam (2011) ‘Spectacular Dimensions: 3D Dance Films’ in Sense of Cinema 61. Available online at

Ross, Miriam (2012) ‘The 3-D aesthetic: Avatarand hyperhaptic visuality’ in Screen 53:4, pp.381-397.

Ross, Miriam (2013) ‘Stereoscopic visuality: Where is the screen, where is the film?’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.406-414

Ross, Miriam (2013) ‘Critical Response I: Response to Thomas Elsaesser’, Critical Inquiry, 39:4, pp.874-877.

Ross, Miriam (2015) 3D Cinema: Optical Illusions and Tactile Experiences, Houndmills, Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN: 9781137378569

Ross, Miriam (2015) 3D cinema: optical illusions and tactile experiences. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ross, Miriam (2016) ‘Transformative bodies in 3D cinema: Computer generated morphing and extra-sensory depth cues’ in Spöhrer, Markus, ed., Die ästhetisch-narrativen Dimensionen des 3D-Films: neuen Perspektive der Stereoskopie. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien, pp.123-136. ISBN: 9783658094218

Ross, Miriam (2020) Reconfigurations of Screen Borders: The New or Not-So-New Aspect Ratios in Sæther, Susanne Ø. and Bull, Synne T. (eds.) Screen space reconfigured. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp.105-126 ISBN: 9789089649928 e-isbn 9789048529056

Ross, Sara (2012). Invitation to the Voyage: The Flight Sequence in Contemporary 3D Cinema. Film History: An International Journal24:2. pp.210-220.

Ruppel, Wolfgang, Alff, Yannic and Göllner, Thomas (2013) ‘Study on the Acceptance of Higher Frame Rate Stereoscopic 3D in Digital Cinema’. SMPTE Conferences, 2013:10, pp.1-12,

Salvesen, Britt ed. (2018) 3D: Double vision, London: Prestel. ISBN: 9783791356686

Sammons, Eddie (1992) The World of 3D Movies, A Delphi.

Sandifer, Philip (2011) ‘Out of the screen and into the theatre: 3-D film as demo’ in Cinema Journal, 50:3, pp.62-78.

Santaren, Juan Fernandez (2015) ‘Santiago Ramon y Cajal and three-dimensional cinema’. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 24:2, pp.111-22.

Schröter, Jens (2014) 3D: history, theory and aesthetics of the transplane image. (International Texts in Critical Media Aesthetics, 6) London:Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN: 9781441167262

Schulze, Joshua (2017) ‘ In defense of stereoscopy: A reconsideration of 3D in Owen Weetch’s Expressive spaces in digital 3D cinema [Book review]’, MediascapeFall 2017 Available:

Seel, Peter B. (2010) ‘Visualizing the world in 3-D from stereoscope to the Super Bowl’ in Television Quarterly, 39:1, pp.4-12

Smith, David Harris (2013) ‘Colin Low and Transitions 3D: Innovating Immersive Cinema’ in Public, 47, pp.142-148

Smith, Michael D., Ludé, Peter and Hogan, Bill (2011) 3D cinema and television technology: the first 100 years, White Plains, N.Y.: SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) ISBN: 9781614829003

Sobieraj, Sabrina and Krämer, Nicole C. (2014) ‘Do 3D moviegoers enjoy screenings more than 2D moviegoers?—On the impact of 3D fantasy movie perception on enjoyment’.  Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 23:4, pp.430-448,

Spöhrer, Markus (2016) ‘The aesthetic and narrative dimensions of 3D film: new perspectives on stereoscopy’ in Spöhrer, Markus, ed., Die ästhetisch-narrativen Dimensionen des 3D-Films: neuen Perspektive der Stereoskopie. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien, pp.19-34. ISBN: 9783658094218

Spottiswoode, Raymond (1952) ‘Progress in three-dimensional films at the Festival of Britain’, Journal of the SMPTE, 58, pp.291-303.

Spottiswoode, Raymond, Spottiswoode, Nigel and Smith, Charles W. (1952) ‘Basic principles of the three-dimensional film’, Journal of the SMPTE, 59, pp.249-286.

Spottiswoode, Raymond and Spottiswoode, Nigel (1953) The theory of stereoscopic transmission and its application to the motion picture, Berkeley & Los Angeles:University of California Press.

Steinbach, Leonard (2011) ‘3D or Not 3D? Is that a Question?’ in Curator: The Museum Journal, 54:1, pp.41-54.

Telotte, J. P. (2004) ‘Making tele-contact: 3D film and The Creature from the Black Lagoon‘. Extrapolation, 45:3, pp.294-304.

Terlutter, Ralf, Diehl, Sandra, Koinig, Isabell and Waiguny, Martin K. J. (2016) ‘Positive or Negative Effects of Technology Enhancement for Brand Placements? Memory of Brand Placements in 2D, 3D, and 4D Movies’. Media Psychology, 19:4, pp.505-533.

Teulade, Vincent, Bothun, Deborah K., Antarieu, Francois, Fenez, Marcel, Sharkey, Kenneth and Stokes, Phil (2010) 3D Here and Now… a goose that lays a golden egg?, Price Waterhouse Coopers.

Thompson, Kristin and Bordwell, David (2007) Bwana Beowulf

Thompson, Kristin (2009) ‘Has 3-D already failed?’, Observations on Film Art, 28 August 2009,

Thompson, Kristin (2011) ‘As the summer winds down, is 3D doing the same?’, Observations on Film Art, 30 August 2011

Thompson, Kristin (2011) ‘Do not forget to return your 3D glasses’, Observations on Film Art, 27 July 2011,

Thompson, Kristin (2011) ‘Has 3D already failed? The sequel, part one: RealDlighted’, Observations of Film Art, 20 January 2011.

Thompson, Kristin (2011) ‘Has 3D already failed? The Sequel, part 2: RealDsgusted’, Observations on Film Art, 25 January 2011

Timby, Kim (2015) 3D and animated lenticular photography: between Utopia and entertainment. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter. ISBN: 9783110448078/9783110413069

Tricart, Céline (2016) 3D filmmaking: techniques and best practices for stereoscopic filmmakers. Abingdon, Oxon.: Focal Press. ISBN: 9781138847897

Tryon, Chuck (2013) ‘Reboot Cinema’ in Convergence, 19:4, pp.432-437 10.1177/1354856513494179

Turnacker, Katalin (2014) ‘Harmony of Senses – 3D Documentaries of Herzog and Wenders’, Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Film and Media Studies, 8:1, pp.97-111

Turnock, Julie (2013) ‘ Removing the Pane of Glass: The Hobbit, 3D High Frame Rate Filmmaking, and the Rhetoric of Digital Convergence’, Film Criticism, 37/38:3/1, pp.30-59.

Tyler, Parker (1954) ‘Movie Note: The 3-D’s’. The Kenyon Review, 16:3, pp.468-472.

Utterson, Andrew (2016) ‘Practice Makes Imperfect: Technology and the Creative Imperfections of Jean-Luc Godard’s Three-Dimensional (3D) Cinema’. Quarterly Review of Film and Video, 34:3, pp.295-308. DOI:10.1080/10509208.2016.1209953

Utterson, Andrew (2016) ‘Goodbye to cinema? Jean-Luc Godard’s Adieu au langage (2014) as 3D images at the edge of history’, Studies in French Cinema pp.1-16,

Utterson, Andrew (2017) ‘Practice Makes Imperfect: Technology and the Creative Imperfections of Jean-Luc Godard’s Three-Dimensional (3D) Cinema’, Quarterly Review of Film and Video, 34:3,pp.295-308.

Verhoeff, Nanna (2016) ‘Surface explorations: 3D moving images as cartographies of time’, Espacio, Tiempo y Forma Serie VII  Historis del Arte,

Verhoeff, Nanna (2020) ‘Surface Explorations: 3D Moving Images as Cartographies of Time’ in Sæther, Susanne Ø. and Bull, Synne T. (eds.) Screen space reconfigured. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp.179-200. ISBN: 9789089649928 e-isbn 9789048529056

Vincs, Kim and McCormick, John (2010) ‘Touching space: using motion capture and stereo projection to create a “Virtual Haptics” of dance’, in Leonardo, 43:4, pp.359-366.

Wade, Nicholas J. (2013) ‘The Experimental Origins of Cinema, Stereo and their Combination’ in Public, 47, pp.60-71

Wade, Nicholas J. (2016) ‘Capturing Motion and Depth before Cinematography’. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 25:1, pp.3-22.

Wade, Nicholas J. (2017) ‘Seeing with two eyes and hearing with two ears’. International Journal on Stereo and Immersive Media, 1:1, pp.4-25.

Walters, Ben (2009) ‘The great leap forward’. Sight and Sound, 19:3, pp.38-43.

Wasson, Haidee (2013) ‘Industrial Magic and Light: 3D at the New York’s World Fair (1939)’ in in Public, 47, pp.123-131

Wedel, Michael (2015) Sculpting with light: early fime style, stereoscopic vision and the idea of a “plastic art in motion” in Ligensa, Annemone and Kreimeier, Klaus (eds.) Film 1900: Technology, perception culture. Indiana University Press, pp.201-223

Weetch, Owen (2012) ‘Reading Parallax: 3D Meaning Construction in The Hole’ in CineAction, 89,  pp. 14-21

Weetch, Owen (2016) Expressive Spaces in Digital 3D Cinema, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. ISBN: 978-1-137-54266-3

Weetch, Owen (2016) ‘Stepping out: Victory and Utopia in the 3D instalments of the Step Up franchise’ in Spöhrer, Markus, ed., Die ästhetisch-narrativen Dimensionen des 3D-Films: neuen Perspektive der Stereoskopie. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien, pp.137-150. ISBN: 9783658094218

Wenders, Wim (2013) A Film for Pina: Keynote of the Toronto International Stereoscopic 3D Conference’ in Public, 47, pp.214-235

Whissel, Kristen (2016) ‘Parallax Effects: Epistemology, Affect and Digital 3D Cinema’ Journal of Visual Culture 15:2, 233–249.

Whissel, Kristen (2020) Digital 3D, Parallax Effects, and the Construction of Film Space in Tangled 3D and Cave of Forgotten Dreams 3D in Sæther, Susanne Ø. and Bull, Synne T. (eds.) Screen space reconfigured. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. pp.77-104, ISBN: 9789089649928 e-isbn 9789048529056

Wilcox, Laurie M., Allison, Robert S., Helliker, John, Dunk, Bert and Anthony, Roy C. (2015) ‘Evidence that Viewers Prefer Higher Frame-Rate Film’.  ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 12:4, pp.1-12,

Willems, Philippe (2016) ‘Virtual Reality in the Age of Panoramas: Mapping Out Buildings, a Village, Capitals, and Hell’, Dix-Neuf, 20:2, pp.187-212

Willis, Artemis (2016) ‘Between nonfiction screen practice and nonfiction peep practice: The Keystone ‘600 Set’ and the geographical mode of representation’, Early Popular Visual Culture, 13:4, pp.293-312. DOI:10.1080/17460654.2015.1111593

Wittlief, Kenneth (2007) ‘Stereoscopic 3D film and animation: getting it right’.  SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, 41:3, pp.2,

Wood, Aylish (2015) ‘Intangible spaces: Three-dimensional technology in Hugo and IMAX in The Dark Knight’.  Convergence: the International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 21:2, pp.169-181,

Woodcock, Rose (2011) ‘Predatory vision: 3D imaging and the transformation of screen-space’, in Text, 11. Pp. 1-10,

Zettl, Herber (2012) ‘Why 3D may  Work Occasionally: Case Reopened’ in  Visual
Communication Quarterly, 19:3, pp.148-159.

Zone, Ray (2005) 3-D Filmmakers  Conversations With Creators Of Stereoscopic Motion Pictures, Oxford: The Scarecrow Press. ISBN: 0810854376

Zone, Ray (2007) ‘Ghosts in relief: stereoscopic projection, magic lanterns and the movies’. The Magic Lantern Gazette, 19:1, pp.17-24.

Zone, Ray (2007) Stereoscopic Cinema and the Origins of 3-D Film, Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN: 0813124611

Zone, Ray (2012) 3D revolution: the history of modern stereoscopic cinema, Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN: 0813136113

Zone, Ray (2012) 3-DIY: stereoscopic moviemaking on an indie budget, Boston: Focal Press. ISBN: 0240817079

Zone, Ray (2013) ‘Avant-3D: Notes on the Experimental Stereoscopic Cinema and its Relation to Other Arts’ in Public, 47, pp.72-82